This led to the prosecution and conviction of the investigators for fraud, deceit and unprofessional conduct.
a. The Nuremburg Code- This set of directives established the basic principles that must be observed in order to satisfy moral, ethical, and legal concepts in the conduct of human subject research. The Code has been the model for many professional and governmental codes since the 1950s and has, in effect, served as the first international standard for the conduct of research.
b. The Belmont Report – report byproduct of the Syphilis Study at Tuskegee which Congress established the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1974. The National Commission was charged with identifying the ethical principles to guide all research involving human subjects and developing guidelines for the conduct of ethical research involving human subjects. The National Commission later produced the Ethical Principles and Guidelines of Human Subjects of Research.
c. Subpart A – Is also called as “The Common Rule” that describes the required protections for all human subjects. It also defined human subject as living individual that is the subject of investigator’s research and research as systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.”
b. Beneficence – persons are treated in an ethical manner not only by respecting their decisions and protecting them from harm, but also by making efforts to secure their well being. Such treatment falls under the principle of beneficience. To cover acts of kindness or charity that go beyond strict oblication.
The research subject’s protection is expanded when they are part of the vulnerable sector and/or when their autonomy is diminished. Vulnerable sectors typically consist of