alities have perpetrated racial discrimination in educational institutions which academically disadvantage the minorities, hence the aim of this paper in seeking to determine whether racial discrimination affects academic performance.
Social scientists postulate that races are social constructions loosely related to the comprehended phenotypical variations in humans (Browne, K., 2011). Closely related would be the aspect of ethnicity which concerns national ancestry, signifying the historical, cultural and linguistic differences in the involved groups. The way an individual would construct a racial identity in reaction to the behavior of others amounts to racial identity. To understand how structure, human agency and culture affect outcomes, it would be crucial to understand the social positioning of people. Education has been noted to propagate secondary socialization after primary socialization from families. Positive academic achievements provide social mobility opportunities allowing for secure jobs, good health and housing. This means that everyone should have the opportunity to access education and be motivated to excel.
In the education sector, racial discrimination has been noted to be a key determinant of outcome. This outcome would be determined through graduation rates, grade point averages, GPA and test scores according to Hodge, S., Burden, J. Robinson, L. and Bennett III, R., (2008). In institutions having learners from different races, the researchers observe that achievement gap between races would be brought about through racial discrimination. Form their study whose samples were two high schools with racially diverse students, Muller, C. et al., (2010) noted that this discrimination would present the minority with limited learning opportunities.
In a study that seems to further determine the academic impact of this discrimination of the minority, Rowley, R. and Wright, D., (2007) appreciate that a racially discriminative environment deters the