According to 1961 statistics, the poorest quintile earned six percent of total income while the wealthiest earned 61 percent of the total income (USAID/LAC/CAM 1). The trend has not reversed whereby the poorest 20 percent earn about 2.4 percent of the total income while the richest quintile earn about 58.3 percent of the total national income. The youth faces numerous challenges including lack of access to basic services like water, energy and education. Majority of the youth aged between 14-25 years face social exclusion. The country’s population is fairly young with average age of 37 years. It is estimated that 11 percent of the youthful population is illiterate (14-25). 40 percent of the children in the country drop out of school before grade 5 while only 17 percent of the youths afford to reach university level in their education (USAID/LAC/CAM 2). Question three: Origin of gangs in El Salvador The origin of the gangs can be traced back to the civil war of 1980s whereby Salvadorans and their children fled to Los Angeles, California. By 1990, more than 700,000 Salvadorans had settled in California, Washington DC, New York and parts of Maryland hence they formed own gangs which joined the already existing gangs in those places. After the Peace Accord between the government and the Marti Faribundo National Liberation Front (FMLN) in 1992, the Civil War ended and most of the Salvadorans began streaming back to their country. In 1996, the number of Salvadorans returning back home increased due to the changes in immigration policies in the United States where thousands were deported to El Salvador and other Central American countries (USAID/LAC/CAM 5). Although the immigrants were not deported due to criminal activities, some of them had already been incarcerated in the California prison system. Some of the deportees were Gang members including the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and the 18th Street (Barrio 18) gangs who inherited many aspects of the U.S gang culture back in El Salvador. Some of the U.S gang culture which the gangs took back to El Salvador includes the use of hand signals, insider language, styles of dress and the propensity of rebellion and violence. MS-13 and 18th Street members leaned much of their gang craft from the established Mafia Mexicana which is the most influential gang in Southern California. Two gangs which originated from this include the MS 13 (Mara Salvatrucha) and 18th Street gang (USAID/LAC/CAM 5). Question four: goals of the 18th St. Gang The 18th Street gang has established several goals where the first one is to take over the drug trade which they can use to finance their criminal activities. The gang also wants to purchase weapons for the gang members. The gang is also geared at eliminating members who are traitors. The gang is also prohibiting new tattoos and also wants to end the recruitment of women as new gang recruits. The gang has established a goal of executing members who consume crack and cocaine but it has allowed the consumption of marijuana including marijuana laced with coke. The gang has established an objective of taking over drug trafficking corridors in the next two to three years. The gang is also committed to taking over the small cartels USAID/LAC/CAM 6). Gangs in El Salvador are becoming more sophisticated Law enforcement approaches have not been able to curb gang violence and gang membership seam to be on the rise. MS- 13 and 18th Street gangs are trying to establish drug corridors and collaborations with
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Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: El Salvador gang assessment Introduction Question one: Sociological phenomenon of violence after 1992 Gangs and associated violence is the most sociological phenomena of violence after the peace Accords of 1992 which ended the civil war…
Consistent with that delineation, most investigations have concentrated on time span of gang engagement and have not delved into time span before and after gang association. Bаckground Throughout history we as pеoplе of Unitеd Stаtеs hаvе sееn mаny sociаl problеms аrisе from Grеаt Dеprеssion of 1930's in civil rights movеmеnt in 1960.
The author states that a gang should be understood as a spontaneously forming group that is not attached to any specific part of society. A more recent definition of gangs views the latter as groups that consist of individuals who recurrently associate and are subject to identifiable organization in leadership and internal matters.
If one wants to work with gang members, he or she must tread lightly and act cautiously as they may be very resistant to change and loyal to their group. Also, one could encounter opposition, which can be even violent if other members of the gang want to stop the intervention of the outside element in their dealings and trying to "convert" other members or their entire gang to something different than they are presently (Huff, 1989).
In the late 1980s, he used yam pounders and clay pots, and then afterward, he started designing using milk tins and metal bottle tops, thus infusing his work with myths and symbols. Most of his big compositions comprise of multiple parts (Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute 11).
Street gangs keep on getting larger as many young people and adults join because of poverty or by being forced. These gangs have become very influential in some parts of the world. A region may have more than one street gang, which fight against each other to gain influence and power.
The researcher of this paper shows Salvador Dali's works and his role in surrealism. His paintings highlighted one or more themes that are generally not easy to comprehend. His skills and works appear to have influence from the Renaissance artists. He was a good photographer too. He had fellowship with artists of different media.
quate number of delinquent occurrences to call forward the reliable contradictory answer from district inhabitants and/or regulation enforcement agencies (Giordano 126–132). Consistent with that delineation, most investigations have concentrated on time span of gang engagement
As it was stated by the National Youth Gang Center, gang membership across the United States is more than 700, 000 (National Youth Gang Center, 2002). But what is a gang? What are the origins and history of gangs? What are gang activities and behavior?
volve around the evolution of plantation as a production system which leaned toward production for export purposes and in particular, the production of sugar cotton and coffee. . (Maxwell, Daniel G., John W. Parker, and Heather C. Stobaugh, 69) Such kind of production relies on
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