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El Salvador Gang Assessment - Research Paper Example

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According to 1961 statistics, the poorest quintile earned six percent of total income while the wealthiest earned 61 percent of the total income (USAID/LAC/CAM 1). The trend has not reversed whereby the poorest 20 percent earn about 2.4 percent of the total income while the richest quintile earn about 58.3 percent of the total national income. The youth faces numerous challenges including lack of access to basic services like water, energy and education. Majority of the youth aged between 14-25 years face social exclusion. The country’s population is fairly young with average age of 37 years. It is estimated that 11 percent of the youthful population is illiterate (14-25). 40 percent of the children in the country drop out of school before grade 5 while only 17 percent of the youths afford to reach university level in their education (USAID/LAC/CAM 2). Question three: Origin of gangs in El Salvador The origin of the gangs can be traced back to the civil war of 1980s whereby Salvadorans and their children fled to Los Angeles, California. By 1990, more than 700,000 Salvadorans had settled in California, Washington DC, New York and parts of Maryland hence they formed own gangs which joined the already existing gangs in those places. After the Peace Accord between the government and the Marti Faribundo National Liberation Front (FMLN) in 1992, the Civil War ended and most of the Salvadorans began streaming back to their country. In 1996, the number of Salvadorans returning back home increased due to the changes in immigration policies in the United States where thousands were deported to El Salvador and other Central American countries (USAID/LAC/CAM 5). Although the immigrants were not deported due to criminal activities, some of them had already been incarcerated in the California prison system. Some of the deportees were Gang members including the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and the 18th Street (Barrio 18) gangs who inherited many aspects of the U.S gang culture back in El Salvador. Some of the U.S gang culture which the gangs took back to El Salvador includes the use of hand signals, insider language, styles of dress and the propensity of rebellion and violence. MS-13 and 18th Street members leaned much of their gang craft from the established Mafia Mexicana which is the most influential gang in Southern California. Two gangs which originated from this include the MS 13 (Mara Salvatrucha) and 18th Street gang (USAID/LAC/CAM 5). Question four: goals of the 18th St. Gang The 18th Street gang has established several goals where the first one is to take over the drug trade which they can use to finance their criminal activities. The gang also wants to purchase weapons for the gang members. The gang is also geared at eliminating members who are traitors. The gang is also prohibiting new tattoos and also wants to end the recruitment of women as new gang recruits. The gang has established a goal of executing members who consume crack and cocaine but it has allowed the consumption of marijuana including marijuana laced with coke. The gang has established an objective of taking over drug trafficking corridors in the next two to three years. The gang is also committed to taking over the small cartels USAID/LAC/CAM 6). Gangs in El Salvador are becoming more sophisticated Law enforcement approaches have not been able to curb gang violence and gang membership seam to be on the rise. MS- 13 and 18th Street gangs are trying to establish drug corridors and collaborations with ...Show more
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Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: El Salvador gang assessment Introduction Question one: Sociological phenomenon of violence after 1992 Gangs and associated violence is the most sociological phenomena of violence after the peace Accords of 1992 which ended the civil war…
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