Methods of deterring crimes like retribution and rehabilitation have curtailed the freedoms of the offenders without any significant reduction in the crime levels. Rehabilitation seeks to prevent further crimes and not punishing the offender hence it is an effective method of preventing further crimes in the society. The paper will provide recommendations on how one can become a useful member of society. Biological and psychological perspectives of crime, crime careers and deterrence, retribution, incapacitation and rehabilitation Introduction Crime has existed in the society since time immemorial. The society cannot completely eradicate crime hence various means have been devised to eradicate crime. Key to these means include deterrence mechanisms which include punishments like jail imprisonments and fines. However, devising efficient methods to combat crime entails understanding crime from both the biological and psychological perspectives (Conklin, 2010). There are different organizational structures for crimes which depend on the number of the members involved, the nature of the crime, the communication requirements and the motivations of the criminal activity. Many judicial systems have relied on incapacitation, retribution and rehabilitation to control the crime rate in the society. Interestingly, rehabilitation has proved to be more effective than the other methods which are geared at punishing the offender (Conklin, 2010). This paper will consider the biological and psychological explanations of crime and the organization of crimes. The paper will also address the different forms and functions of punishments and their effects in deterring repeat crimes. Biological and psychological explanations of crime Numerous theories have been advanced by researchers to explain the biological and psychological causes of crime. For instance, Aristotle found out that poverty is the main cause of revolutions and crimes. According to the classical theory of criminology, people choose their criminal behavior if they believe the benefits of crime outweigh the costs. The classical theory argues that it is appropriate to make punishment equal the nature of the crime committed in order to achieve deterrence. Generally biological explanations of crime assert that persons commit crimes due to genetic make up where they are considered ugly in the society. Psychological explanations dwell on the personality imbalances which develop early during childhood (Conklin, 2010). The earliest biological explanation of criminal activity was the atavism theory which was developed by Lombroso in which he concluded that a person is “born criminal”. Atavism is a primitive man in the early age of human evolution hence will commit crime unless he or she is restrained. According to Lombroso theory, criminals can be determined by their physical appearance and attributes (Conklin, 2010). Lombroso theory only investigated the postmortem bodies of dead criminals where his investigations revealed that the structure of the skulls and jaws was different from that of non-criminals. Lombroso argues that criminality is inherited hence people have no control of their criminal behavior. According to him, criminals can be identified by physiognomic defects such as sloping brow which is a symbol of low intelligence and renowned jaw which symbolizes
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Biological and psychological perspectives of crime, crime careers and deterrence, retribution, incapacitation and rehabilitation Name: Institution: Abstract Crime in the society has been a major social problem since human existence. Historical crime deterrence measures such as punishments, fines and incapacitation have done little to deter crime…
Significant applications related to the issues would be discussed. Likewise, the discourse would address how one can apply what is learned from the topics towards becoming a more valuable member of society. Reflection on Crime The study of crime has continued to intrigue various professionals as to the nature, rationale and prevention that it continues to evolve until contemporary times.
In order to achieve this, laws were made and enforced so that societies can function in an efficient manner. Social order, and its enforcement, is important for the survival of any society because this is the only way through which collective interest of the society can be preserved.
While this is an understandable example of blaming the victim, other categories are less understandable. Women rape victims and victims of domestic violence are typically blamed for the crime. Children victims of incest used to be blamed, on the theory that they initiated the incest or that they wanted the incest to occur, either consciously or unconsciously.
While the case of sentencing or punishing an offender arises, there occurs a debate between the form of the available punishments, retribution or rehabilitation (Tan, 2008). The present study focuses on the issues and the arguments with regard to these two forms of punishment.
The theories are based on the premise that the physical attributes are passed from parents to the children making such children fall at the risk of committing crimes. Major theorists in this field studied the body organs of individuals relating the attributes of certain body organs to criminality.
The crime fighting body, the FBI in each year compiles a comprehensive report that details all reported crimes in the US, which are grouped in crime rate per 100,000 residents across states and cities. Such crime data offers the basis on which decisions can be made on the approaches needed to lower or prevent crimes in different areas.
Legally, governments label specific actions as criminal activities thus crime deepening on the harm they cause to the society. Such acts as murder, theft and rape are considered crimes all over the world (Marshall, 1998). The acts cause harm to the society and derail the appraisal of the morality in the society.
The previous elimination of this sentence was a key win for humanitarian activists. Therefore, serial killers would only face a lifetime sentence instead of execution. In New York, crime rose significantly
Learning in itself can be described as the process of acquiring and storing new information/knowledge in ones mind. Needless to say, one would not be able to store this new information if their memory was not functioning efficiently thus the need for the
gives even the most accurate data for detecting an actual criminal by accurately analyzing characteristics of individuals associated to particular crimes. Criminal profiling refers to the act of identifying a criminal by thorough analysis of the nature and scene of a crime.
7 pages (1750 words)Research Paper
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