Africa, Democratization, political underdevelopment Political Underdevelopment in Africa Introduction There are daunting challenges currently facing the continent of Africa. The continent experiences the highest proportion of its population living in conditions characterized by extreme poverty. As a result, Food 4 Africa (n.d.) notes that the continent has not met any of the global United Nations goals agreed upon in 2000 called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As a result, millions of Africans live in extreme poverty and go hungry each passing day. This is a sign of poverty and its root causes are political underdevelopment that results in poor leadership and governance structures. Besides, the levels of illiteracy in the continent of Africa are the highest. This is a result of failure to achieve the MDG on free universal primary education for all with the number of school going children not attending school is the highest in this world (Food 4 Africa, n.d.). In addition, the African continent witnesses most of the world’s conflicts arising from political underdevelopment and unequal distribution of resources. Therefore, despite the growing interaction of societies and economies of the world, Africa witnesses political underdevelopment in comparison to the other continents. It's in two different ways with the first one being a result of a large uneducated mass while the other one resulting in a migration of educated elites to other nations. According to Food 4 Africa (n.d.), the African continent has failed in the achievement of the MDG on universal primary education. As a result, Food 4 Africa (n.d.) notes that the “number of girls out of school in Africa is the highest in the world (23m).” In this case, this uneducated population is not aware of even of their most basic of human rights and as a result, they fail to demand and agitate for good governance in most of these African countries. Conversely, the educated Africans who leave their countries of birth to seek employment opportunities in other adopted countries result in a problem referred as brain drain. This problem affects Africa most since the best minds do not work towards the objective of developing their countries. Indeed, the Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (2000) estimated that 27,000 highly qualified Africans left Africa for Western countries between 1960 and 1975. On the other hand, the International Organization for Migration (2003) notes that more than 100,000 qualified Africans lived and worked in countries within the European Union and North America with the number set to rise each year (as cited in Ndiaye, Melde, & Ndiaye-Coic, n.d.). In this case, these skilled and qualified Africans leave their countries of birth and fail to participate in the demand for good governance and ultimately lead to political underdevelopment in the continent. Colonization is another social issue, although, with a political aspect in it, that influences political underdevelopment in the continent.