Human trafficking also involves labor exploitation such as migrant agricultural work, forced labor and domestic servitude. Human trafficking involves the use of force which is conducted through rape, beating, and confinement of the victims. Violence is mainly used during the early stage in order to prevent the victim resistance (Cullen-DuPont 15).
Human trafficking also involve fraud where the victims reply to advertisements promising jobs in other countries as maids and dancers but the victims are subjected to prostitution on arrival to those countries (Cullen-DuPont, 2009). Human trafficking will also involve coercion where the victim is threatened with physical harm and injury for failure to comply (Cullen-DuPont 31). Victims are subjected to debt bondage where they are required to pay their initial transportation fees since their travelling documents are confiscated which makes it difficult for the victim to seek legal advice or escape. In some instances, fines are imposed for failure to meet the daily quota of service which further increases the debt. Language barrier, social and other physical barriers makes it difficult for the victims to seek assistance. Human trafficking should not be confused with migrant smuggling since in the latter the victim may give his consent. Smuggling is usually a breach of territorial borders integrity and may not be transnational (Cullen-DuPont 49). The main forms of human trafficking are sex trafficking and labor trafficking. Sex trafficking include recruitment, transportation, harboring, provision and obtaining persons for the purpose of commercial sex act....
The commercial sex act is performed through force, fraud or coercion or where the victim is forced to perform the act is under the age of 18 years. Labor trafficking is another form of human trafficking which involves recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision or obtaining of person for labor or services through the use of coercion, fraud or force for the purpose of involuntary servitude, slavery, debt bondage or peonage. There are two main types of human trafficking which are recognized by the Trafficking victims’ protection act of 2000 (TVPA) (Cullen-DuPont 67). Victims of human trafficking and potential victims worldwide The victims of human trafficking include men, women, children and young teenagers. Most of the victims are women and children who are trafficked across national borders. The amount of victims is 600,000 to 800,000 people who are mainly women and children. It is estimated that between 14,500 and 17,500 of those victims are trafficked in to the U.S. Generally victims trafficked in to the U.S come from Asia, Central and South America and Eastern Europe hence do not understand English which makes it difficult for them to seek help. However, the statistics of millions who are trafficked within their national borders are not available (Cullen-DuPont 72). The offenders of human trafficking From 2001 to 2005, 555 cases were referred to US attorneys. Involuntary servitude accounted for 63 cases, sale in to involuntary servitude accounted for 155 cases, transportation of the servitude accounted for 16 cases forced labor accounted for 134 cases. Sex trafficking of children accounted for 129 cases while trafficking of slaves accounted for 49 cases. Most of the cases were in four Federal judicial courts of Florida, Texas, California and New York.