According to the report one of the most important theorists within the realms of sociological and economics was Karl Marx. While Marx is recognized as being one of the progenitors of communism, his perspectives on the interworking of capitalist society, as articulated in his mega-tome Capital (Calhoun 2007). Marx’s vision of the world was decidedly different from later sociological theorist Emile Durkheim. Durkheim viewed society through the lens of collective consciousness, wherein it was constituted by holistic and moral interactions between members. Conversely, Marx’ perspective on social organization viewed it in much more stark and cynical terms. Marx viewed social organization as evolving through a series of stage. This paper outlines that today Emile Durkheim is recognized as one of the founders of sociology. Durkheim investigated many questions that were also considered by Karl Marx and Max Weber. Perhaps most fundamentally Durkheim examined the elements that hold society together. While Durkheim recognized that humans were inherently self-interested he argued that the notion of a collective consciousness (a concept borrowed from Carl Jung) held society together. Durkheim argued that it was this collective consciousness that was forged daily in interactions with other members of society. Additionally, Durkheim believed humans had a strong moral commitment to notions of collective consciousness, ultimately forming a culture that united individuals.
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