It has its roots in ethnocentrism which would be upheld by stereotypes. Stereotypes refer to the overgeneralizations of the behavior, appearance or other traits of members of a particular group. Just as prejudice, stereotypes could also be positive or negative. Various theories have been proposed to explain prejudice and stereotyping in the society. According to the frustration-aggression hypothesis, frustration among people who seek to achieve a specific goal would cause such persons to respond with aggression towards others. The victim of this aggression becomes the scapegoat according to Kendall (284), which refers to that person or group that lacks the capability to resist hostility or aggression from others. For example, some members of the society could be blamed for societal problems such as economic recession, in spite of such persons not having control over such occurrences. Secondly, the social learning proposition suggests that prejudice could be acquired through observation and imitation of significant others like peers and parents. Highly prejudices persons have been associated with authoritarian personality which encompasses intolerance, excessive conformity and rigid stereotype thinking. Ferrante and Caldeira (288) argue that such personality results from a family environment where dominating parents are anxious of status and would use physical discipline on their children. This personality could also be linked to conservative political and religious beliefs. Prejudice causes undesirable behavior among members of a society. The behavior supporting prejudice could be termed as discrimination which refers to either unintentional or intentional unequal treatment of groups without consideration for their ability, merit or past performance. It makes goods, services and valued experiences inaccessible. Discrimination could take place at an institutional level where there are unchallenged customary norms in a society that would be established by the dominant group which seeks to place the minority at disadvantaged positions. Kendall (284) however argues that not all prejudice would necessarily result into discriminatory behavior. The author introduces unprejudiced non-discriminators as persons who cannot be personally prejudiced and would not discriminate against other people. For example, football teammates could be from different races but turn out to be best friends. Unprejudiced discriminators could lack personal prejudice but exhibit discriminatory traits due to peer pressure or socio-political or economic interest. Stereotypes and prejudice have been largely considered as promoters of racism. Kendall (283) defines racism as a set of practices, beliefs and attitudes used in justifying superior treatment of an ethnic group and inferior treatment of another. Racism could be traced back to the days of early civilization. Over time, various citizens in the US including African Americans, Jewish Americans, Italian Americans and Irish Americans have been racial ideology objects. Overt racism would be exhibited publicly by making public statements on the inferiority of a particular ethnic group. This could include writing racist graffiti or calling people of color derogatory names during sports. These are blatant, but subtle forms of racism would be hidden from
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Name: Title: Course: Tutor: Date: Stereotypes, Generalizations and Prejudice Introduction Stereotyping and prejudice has been in existence for centuries and persists even in the modern day world. Experts in sociology argue that discussion on cultures would always be sure to use mental representations, categories and generalizations when describing groups (Ferrante and Caldeira 286)…
Although, it sometimes lacks evidence and truth, and most frequently suggests filling in the missing pieces of information or completing a puzzle, still, humanity often unknowingly form and uphold stereotypes which frequently result to prejudice and maltreatment when the stereotype is antagonistic (Grobman, 1990).
It does not take into consideration the individual’s personal attributes but rather the attributes of the group as a whole. In our society almost all the classes are stereotyped in accordance to their nature. And this can lead to negative thoughts about this certain class in the society.
Advertisements and Female Gender Stereotypes When we talk about marketing, it is important to understand that marketing does not adopt the approach of men v/s women but it incorporates both genders to create a more attractive and eye catching advertisement for a particular product or service.
Theories concerning the exact reason for the existence of stereotypes differ throughout the social sciences, but a few underlying themes consistently emerge when attempting to determine their origin. A great degree of stereotypes exist. This essay functions by considering the emergence of stereotypes, as well as their articulation in gender, race, religion, and sexual preference; the essay also considers how the media influences stereotypes.
Each one of us has probably felt being alienated or outcast at one point or another and felt that moment when we might have been treated differently or when we felt uncomfortable because we felt different from everybody else. Discrimination due to prejudice and stereotyping is one of the many issues that we must face in a culturally and socially diverse world.
Bhattacharyya (74), describes this notion stating, “The subject of courtship was central in Austen readers in the 19th century English society, because it involved both the social perpetuation of a family line through inherited property and the intermixture of social classes.” Hence, the theme of the conventional motivations for marriage of men and women of Austen’s time as influenced by several factors aside from love is thoroughly presented throughout the novel as evident on where the story started and ended.
Stereotypes created by media appear in different aspects of gender, ethnic, religious and culture. However, the media can be of good influences as well as negative ones (Het, 7). For instance, the media is able to disseminate messages that are able to reinforce and create negative stereotypes as well as perpetuate misconceptions.
The American Heritage Dictionary (2000) define stereotype as “a conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image.” It is likewise defined as “something agreeing with a pattern; especially: an
Nowadays a stereotype is made about Muslims of the world that they are terrorists. All over the world the Muslims are considered to be hostile and violent. This leaves negative and lasting effects on Muslims all over the world. The reason behind making this generalization is the incident of September 11.
to consideration, an array of numerous variables such as the level of economic empowerment, the extent to which the police or law enforcement agency is equipped and the reality of community policing and cooperation between the community and the law enforcement agency. This means
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