Stigma has been defined as a mark of infamy that is usually associated with a specific circumstance, condition, value or a human being (Jos et al. 3). Organizations that have been established to deal with HIV and HIV related issues have recorded some remarkable success in aspects such as HIV drugs distribution and production and establishing health centers specifically dealing with HIV patients among other aspects. However, these organizations have not yet succeeded in reducing or curbing workplace stigma, and the issues that come with stigmatization of HIV infected and affected people. Today, millions are already infected with HIV, yet there are much more who have already succumbed to the illness. This work embarks on a discussion of a policy that can help solve stigma and discrimination in workplaces in South Africa organizations, its challenges, and ways to overcome them. The policy seeks to provide people living with HIV/AIDS protection from stigmatization and discrimination in the workplace, which also involves human resource relation policy that recruits and selects people without having to ask for their HIV status. The policy has procedures that do not discriminative HIV/AIDS people, for example, it does not subject potential employees to pre-employment HIV screening to assess the health of an individual during recruitment and selection process. It should only allow disclosure of their status voluntarily and should avoid requesting confidential results of HIV/AIDS tests ever taken.
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From the essay "The Social Implications of HIV" it is clear that stigmatization and discrimination are based on the belief that HIV/AIDS is communicable, was acquired in an immoral way, could be a curse, and does not have a cure. Many workers have and continue to suffer because of stigmatization…
During the years of 1999 and 2000, the amount of people died in African continent due to HIV is way ahead than the total people died in all wars in the continent. The African continent being most under developed has been a major victim of HIV/AIDS since the disease got discovered.
3002, 1). By 1986, Uganda had been one of the first African countries that collaborated with the World Health Organization [WHO] in drafting its own national aids control program consisted of 13 AIDS control programs (Alwano-Edyegu and Marum 1999, 7). The government and the Ugandan citizens’ combined efforts, supported by international organizations have paid off well, with Uganda today as the sole country in the world to have reduced significantly HIV sero-prevalence rates, specifically among young adults (Konde-Lule 1995, 31; World Bank [WB] 1999, 92; Boerma et al.
Therefore, social theories have been used to explain this relationship. Most social theories on HIV focus on the stigma that shapes the illnesses and people living with it. Stigma related to HIV is known as prejudice, discrimination or discrediting directed at individuals perceived to have the HIV virus, and the society with which they live in (Goffman, 1963).
(Antenatal HIV screening, 2004) Over 30% of these children get infected during birth, especially in poorly developed areas like Africa and Asia. The irony is that these modes of transfer of infection are preventable, yet little has been done.
The issue is both complex and highly ethical.
The author of the paper provides the information that in the USA and abroad, minority women, and African-American women, in particular, are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic. According to the statistics, African-American women being diagnosed with HIV at a significantly higher rate than other groups.
However, there are also CD4+cells within the central nervous system, these being the microglial cells which are of monocyte or macrophage lineage. These cells can be productively infected by HIV in vitro, and in vivo there is evidence of an HIV-induced cytopathic effect since syncytia-like, multi-nucleated cells are seen in the brains of HIV-infected individuals.
This is especially true of those infected with HIV. Demographics for the virus have changed over the past decades, from affecting mostly homosexual men and IV drug users to currently affecting heterosexual women.
The virus originated, however, in two types of monkeys which were consumed by the chimpanzees. A hybrid of the monkey virus (SIV) spread through infected chimpanzees and a mutated form was eventually transmitted to people in the form of HIV-1.