There was massive rural-urban migration, as people flocked towards urban centers in search of a better life. Thus, the cities at that time could be said to be incubators for the political and economic problems confronting their societies and threatening the civilization of humankind. This view was shared by Howard, Wright and Le Corbusier, who believed there was a connection between the physical transformation of a society and that of its social and economic components. They believed their political and economic aspirations could best be achieved in cities whose layouts created a favorable environment for harmonious living, than in those where people were segregated based on their differences in race or class.
To them, social order could be achieved when physical order was in place. This was why they used their physical designs of the ideal city as a tool for achieving their political and economic goals. However, they also proposed various political and economic solutions to complement their designs. They also all believed in the use of technology as a way of bringing about the transformation needed in their societies. The technologies of their day which include: the radio, telephone, railways, automobiles, the roads and the high rising buildings, were believed to all have a role to play in creating change. As a result of this, the industrial revolution was seen as a blessing to their societies and believed its benefits should be harnessed. The ideal cities they built thus gave a picture of what societies could become when are totally transformed.
Although the 3 planners agreed on a vision of an ideal city, they differed in the strategies they proposed in achieving their goals. This was because their social values had been shaped by the cultures that nurtured them and also by their personal convictions. Thus, their different approaches to improving the urban life was influenced by