The theory as formulated by Beccaria suggests that an individual commits a crime with the idea that it is a useful service to him or her. According to Beccaria, such people often avoid working to achieve whatever they need as their focus is seeking pleasure. In trying to define what crime is, Cesare recommended that any activity becomes a crime when the resultant pleasure outweighs the resultant punishment or pleasure (Hagan, 2011). One of the principles contained in Beccaria’s school of thought was that a person was at liberty of choosing to what is unlawful or lawful while trying to obtain his or her desired objectives. The other principle in the theory was that people found criminal solutions attractive as they were faster and easier to acquire.
In this theory, scientific research was incorporated in trying to understand why there are some individuals who engage in criminal activities while others do not. Cesare Lombroso after examining the brains of desert soldiers concluded that a person’s actions used to be controlled by various physical characteristics. With this argument, Lombroso suggested that there are situations whereby an individual may find it hard to control him or herself in the process committing criminal acts. Lombroso further suggested that there were individuals born criminals and thus committing a crime was in their blood (Siegel, 2013). It is possible for scientists to examine individual and determine whether the person was a born criminal. The scientists would observe a person’s physical attributes which people could positively see. The theory suggests that there are those people who do not evolve completely into cultured and intelligent people. People who fail to evolve completely have qualities such as low intelligence are feeble minded and possess primitive emotions. Such people cannot control themselves and thus often commit crimes.