Are they also connected with the work of Marcuse? During the latter part of the 1980s, technology was starting to explore boundaries which used to be just a part of human imagination. There are links one way or another between PBS’s Digital Nation and the works of the 3 sociologists previously named. There can be a number of theories which can be related to this emerging Digital Nation. With the emergence of communication with the use of webcams, people from different locations can see the person they are talking to. They can give instructions as if the directive is being given to an employee at front. Taking for example is the theories and concepts proposed by Karl Marx. The German philosopher/sociologist among many others stated in his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 that, “The capitalist can live longer without the worker than can the worker without the capitalist. Combination among the capitalists is customary and effective; workers’ combination is prohibited and painful in its consequences for them” (Marx, 3). With the emergence of technology as stated above, workers can perform the tasks presented onto him without being physically present at the workplace. Though technology lessen the need of the workers to travel from their home to the workplace, the interaction between workers and capitalists also lessen as technology usage enable the worker to perform the tasks at the vicinity of their home. As such already stated, interaction between workers also lessens therefore technology or the digital nation does not promote camaraderie. In a way, the technological advancements present in the society makes people some sort of anti-social. Fewer interactions also sometimes equates to lessening the opportunity for people to gain knowledge. This digital nation gives opportunity for those who are introvert while it demotes those who are extroverts. As Marx puts it into context: Division of labor and exchange are the two phenomena which lead the political economist to boast of the social character of his science, while in the same breath he gives unconscious expression to the contradiction in his science – the motivation of society by unsocial, particular interests. (58) The digital nation that PBS presented negates the theory or concept that Karl Marx has proposed more than a century ago. According Marx’s Wage Labour and Capital, “Their commodity, labor-power, the workers exchange for the commodity of the capitalist, for money, and, moreover, this exchange takes place at a certain ratio. So much money for so long a use of labor-power. (11)” Since workers does not need to go to the workplace to perform the tasks they were hired to do, is the digital nation favors the capitalists more rather than the workforce? Further analyzing the Frontline episode, one can conclude that a reason for companies to accept home-based workers is that they are getting the workforce number yet they do not necessarily give more benefits and wages since the worker does not need to travel to the workplace and stay there for 8 hours or more. In the Digital Nation documentary, the producers pointed out that there will always be gains and losses. Could the gain be directed to the companies who have introduced the technological gadgets and websites and losses would be put on the people who are using them? It is like the law of supply and demand. The more
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