Center of discussion in this paper is closed – circuit television (CCTV) or the use of video cameras to monitor the public on a specific place. It is relatively not a new idea but is widely used in a wide array of areas around the world. In fact, the case of United Kingdom is something exceptional for it has been reported to have more cameras for every person than the case of other countries around the globe. Nevertheless, the exact count of how many cameras is used in the country is not identified yet. Though one thing is certain, millions of people are under surveillance through the use of these video cameras. On the one hand, surveillance perhaps is the first and foremost the purpose of CCTV. Its significance to governance is not denied. Through monitoring the public, the government and other institutions can manage security. Surveillance of the public through CCTV is in particular advantageous and effective for crime prevention and resolving crimes. CCTV is useful for counter – terrorism mechanisms. It is also functional for traffic monitoring and traffic safety. In this case, the practise of surveillance through the use of CCTV can be perceived as extension of the power of state. Surveillance through the means of CCTV is nothing but mechanism of social control. Meanwhile, given the prevalence of the use of CCTV around the world especially in the case of United Kingdom, however, it does not mean that it has no issues....
Main Body According to Deflem (2008), surveillance is not a new conceptual invention and not even a new practise of the state. The concept of surveillance was discussed long ago by Foucault in 1977 in the birth of the prison. For Foucault, surveillance is a term central for both discipline and governmentality. Prior to disciplining the citizens of the state, they must first undergo a series of continuous surveillance. Individuals are then supervised constantly in which their ways of conducts are assessed. This manner of surveillance among the citizens is important to the government for the reason that it is only through continuous supervision that the state can identify if the citizens are behaving under the normative standards. When individuals are no longer conducting themselves within the norms, the government must function to discipline them. In order to discipline the public, the state must first identify what behaviors are in need of improvement. The government must then operate to punish these individuals who are behaving outside the normative standards. The behaviors of the people must then be normalized. Disciplinary mechanisms of the state are employed among people who are caught through the continuous surveillance of the state amongst its citizens. Surveillance is implemented by the state for the government to exercise its sovereign power. The government exercises such power in order to control the society. On the one hand, surveillance is such a strong notion, a concept of power. It is such a term that is rooted from its origins in the arena of politics as well as policy. Indeed, such term is a concept of governance. In the level of governance, surveillance is used not just as for
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