The theory and model of diffusion of innovations was unanimously presented by an American sociologist and a communication scholar Everett M. Rogers. Born on March 1931 and died in October 2004, Rogers was the first person who describes a model for diffusion of innovations at social or organizational as well as individual terms that elaborates step by step adoption of something new and different. He deduced this theory of diffusion of innovations from his father’s attitude towards adapting new kind of crops for his field as he was reluctant initially but finally get convinced of new specie’s good result. From this human attitude towards testing new phenomena and things and by studying several other cases of diffusion, Rogers invented a five-stage model of diffusion of innovations, in which he divided the population into innovators, early adapters, late adopters or early majority, late majority and finally those who lag behind all of the priors and do not adapt new idea or technique for a particular new phenomena.Different elements of the society take new innovation differently and have their own perspectives about it. For example, for a farmer like Roger’s father who was interested in mechanical innovations and adapt all such innovations early and without hesitation, but when it comes to some biological or chemical innovation, like planting improved specie, he hesitates and avoid unless the result proves itself to be the better one, thus becoming a late majority amongst the adopters. (Salwen & Stacks 1996, Rogers 1983).
Roger explained that there are four main elements which participate in the diffusion of any new idea, these are the innovation, channels through which the idea is diffused or communicated, time taken during the spread and the system or society in which the idea is to be spread. It depends entirely upon the individual how much he/she is willing to adopt the innovation. Again there are five stages for the final adoption of an innovation by an individual. First of all, he/she gets aware of the new idea or innovation, then if he/she finds it interesting to test or evaluate then he/she will accept it, otherwise it will be rejected and the process would end here. If the idea is accepted then it is evaluated by some test or trial, to check whether it works according to the requirement or not. Again, if the idea does not full fill the requirement, then it will not be adopted and the process will get end at this stage. If the new idea or the innovations works better or full fill the requirement accordingly, then it would be adopted immediately. As this entire process takes time, the person who is testing the idea may become a late adopter or an early majority. Hence it cannot be intercepted that the innovation is adopted as it is invented or deduced rather it takes time to ensure about itself that it is useful or not (Diffusion of innovations theory 2012, Rogers 1983).
Rogers invented a graphical curve by doing some mathematical calculations for different types of consumers of the innovation and the level of market share with respect to that particular innovation. The consumer curve takes an