From the article and course learning, the independent variables are achievement motivation, self-efficacy, and parenting styles. On the other hand, the dependent variable is academic performance. The statistical data provided in the research as well as the article topic function as a hint helping one to identify the various variables easily. The researchers expect academic performance to change according to the other factors, which include parenting styles and motivation. As the researchers anticipate, the independent variables are affecting the outcome of the dependent variables in that the authoritative parenting style, self-efficacy and motivation lead to better academic performance. The inherent expectation exhibited by the researchers is that the most favorable style of parenting would yield the best results when considering academic performance.
In order to test the hypothesis and acquire reliable data, the researchers decided to use questionnaire as their preferred research method. As we discussed in class, the researchers decided to use questionnaire because it is one of the most reliable and convenient method of collection of data. Various characteristics of individuals were chosen for the study. The number of undergraduate students included in the study was 264. The researchers over-represented European Americans who were 179 or nearly 68% of all individuals (Turner et al. 341). Among the underrepresented groups are African Americans and Asian Americans who were represented by 13 and 14 individuals respectively. The participants signed up to participate in the study through online platforms and obtained course credit for the participation. The results indicated that specific parenting characteristics that include but not limited to supportiveness play a critical role in determining a person’s academic outcomes. In addition, self-efficacy and motivation are also crucial determinants of educational performance. Self-efficacy is in