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Culture, Nationalism, and Multi-coalitions - Essay Example

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Culture, Nationalism, and Multi-coalitions

It based its assumptions on Marxist historical viewpoints, where capitalism impinged on class and state structures and created class-based conflicts (Kimmel, 1990, p.54). From the 1980s up to the present, however, several revolutions could not be neatly aligned with class-based theories of revolutions. In Iran and Nicaragua in 1979 and in the Philippines in 1986, multi-coalitions joined forces to oust dictators, who once had America’s long-standing support (Goldstone, 2009, p.320). This essay provides an overview of the 1986 Philippine Revolution, also called People Power Revolution, or EDSA Revolution. It also discusses democratic socialism and its application, or lack thereof, on the case of the People Power Revolution. Democratic socialism partially supports class-based problems that produced wide-scale social discontent, but it disregards the religious ideology, nationalism, and culture, as critical defining features of the 1986 peaceful revolution in the Philippines. The EDSA Revolution, like other social revolutions, arose from long-standing social, political, and economic injustice in the Philippines. The Philippines had been under American rule for almost fifty years. After the U.S. granted independence to the Philippines on 4 July 1946, the latter preserved democratic through its Republic government system. Despite the democratic government structure, the Philippines experienced widespread political and socio-economic equality, due to the rise of patronage politics (Putzel, 1999, p.199). Patronage politics combined with clan politics, where political dynasties became the norm. Soon, the educated and land-owning elites dominated the lawmaking and administrative bodies of the government, specifically Congress (Parsa, 2000, p.45). Populism, for some time, enforced the power of the elites. The masses supported these political dynasties because of pervasive vote buying practices and the former’s lackadaisical approach to political participation and empowerment (Parsa, 2000, p.45). The Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and other political organizations/groups, however, gained increasing populist support, due to their propaganda of agricultural reform and social transformation (Parsa, 2000, p.46). On the one hand, the CPP and its New People’s Army (NPA), which stood for the armed component of its movement, extorted money from businesspeople and politicians, while creating fear among civilians (Putzel, 1999, p.209). On the other hand, it presented the image of Robin Hood, as it also fought for the socioeconomic and political empowerment of marginalized sectors of society, particularly farmers, workers, and women (Putzel, 1999, p.209). These communist and other non-governmental and political organizations increasingly opposed the tyranny of President Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos served for twenty years and did not want to leave the seat of power in the country. He declared Martial Law in 1972, and this stayed in effect until 1986. The EDSA Revolution (also called EDSA I because of two other EDSA Revolutions that followed) successfully launched a unified call for the overthrow of President Marcos. Right before the Revolution, a prominent opposition, Senator Benigno Aquino, had been assassinated. Rumors spread that Marcos had him killed, because he increasingly received popular support and threatened to replace Marcos. Public unrest ensued and the masses called for a snap election, hailing the wife of Benigno Aquino, the housewife Corazon ...Show more


Culture, nationalism, and multi-coalitions: Democratic socialism as a theory revolution and its application to the peaceful 1986 Philippine Revolution Name Instructor Class 30 August 2012 The 1986 Philippine Revolution is one the first peaceful revolutions in modern times…
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Culture, Nationalism, and Multi-coalitions essay example
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