Similarly, women’s risk of repeated victimization within an intimate relationship is also higher (Heimer & Kruttschnitt, 2006). The present task for those concerned about women’s victimization is bringing together these sets of information into a complete knowledge of violence against women.
Nowadays, women live in a world defined by prejudice and chauvinism that, in numerous instances, is shown through domestic abuse, interpersonal violence, and intimate partner violence. Dr. Stephanie S. Covington, in her research on traumatized women, reports some worrying statistics on women’s victimization. Primarily, Covington states that based on the American Psychological Association (APA), the greatest predictor or cause of intimate partner victimization is being a woman (Hunnicutt, 2009). Covington reveals that roughly 1.5 million women are physically abused or sexually violated by an intimate partner every year in the U.S. Yet, this number remains conservative or inaccurate because numerous women are repeatedly victimized. Hence, the Bureau of Justice predicts roughly 4.8 million cases of physical violence and intimate partner abuse against women every year (McGill, 2006, 2-3). These figures alone confirm the belief that women of today live in a world ruled by sexism that is usually shown through domestic abuse or intimate partner violence.
Even though intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and domestic abuse are rooted in the history of culture, religion, and human development, concern for these problems has just recently been raised through the initiatives of the Women’s Liberation Movement (Rodriguez-Menes & Safranoff, 2012). Against widespread belief, domestic abuse against women cannot be attributed to a specific economic standing, racial affiliation, or social class. Empirical findings reveal that such violence against women is found all over the world and affects relationships in all social classes. When taking into consideration the cause