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Social Demography - Essay Example

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When one group grows faster than other the composition of the society gets changed. The Bulletin describes key demographic processes in detail and the way they are assessed. Its detailed explanation about fertility, mortality and migration as the chief drivers of demographic change is commendable. Fertility is defined in terms of number of children per woman; in contrast, fecundity means ability of an individual to bear children. While forecasting for the future growth in population, it is important to know about the total fertility rate (TFRs) of a country or region. The author specifies that the TFR has an important consideration in finding replacement-level fertility. The author argues that the replacement-level fertility needs a TFR slightly above 2.0. It would have been better if the author had outlined some empirical equation to arrive at this figure. The report explains that the effects of race, ethnicity, cultural traditions, and religious beliefs are profound on fertility rates and that is true; however, the traits and traditions tend to change in subsequent generations as they follow the fertility patterns of the adopted countries. Fertility and fecundity, in any society keep on changing due to interplay of numerous factors. While discussing about mortality rates the author argues that it has a lot to do with income, education and occupation of the people; however, the author is over skeptical about the life expectancy as he feels that it may decline. Author puts forward the reason of HIV/AIDS for decline in life expectancy. It is true that it has caused catastrophic gloom in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa but the author seems to be over pessimistic on his assessment. According to him, the communicable diseases will keep the mortality rate always higher because of the aspects such as international air travel, migration and even importation of fruits and vegetables and the reasons put forward by him are certainly not palatable. Medical science has advanced a lot and currently, there are no chances of people dying in bulk as used to happen in the beginning of nineteenth century when deadly communicable diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, yellow fever and measles destroyed the huge population in a few weeks’ time. With the availability of potent drugs and ever advancing medical sciences, the disease such as AIDS has not been able to cast its deadly shadow on humanity so far. It is a fact that in spite of wars, terrorism, natural calamities, life expectancy is on rise and the author himself has mentioned about it. The author discusses about the subject 'Life Span: How Long Could We Live?' That has no relevance to the any kind of demographic study that the author has discussed throughout. It simply mentions about some isolated cases where people have lived a long life – as long as 122 years. The author asks, "How high can life expectancy get?" In fact, it has no relevance in deciding about the demographic study of any cohorts at all. It cannot be answered why someone lives as long as 122 years by any demographic study. It could be perhaps because of a genetic formation within an individual along with good eating and living habits; however, that can always be classified as an isolated case. In fact, the subject does not fall in the realms of any demographic s ...Show more
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Summary

Social Demography It is true that demographic changes cause a significant impact on society. The report issued by Population Bureau informs about the demographic changes that are taking place in the United States and the world over. The paper aims at exploring major strengths and weaknesses of the report in question and would delve into how it can be strengthened further by incorporating some more relevant aspects…
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