The concept of Head of State arises as a way of differentiating it from the Head of Government. In parliamentary democracies like Germany and the United Kingdom, the head of state refers to the respective presidents while the Chancellor and the Prime Minister are regarded as the heads of government. However in presidential systems of government, the president is normally recognized as both the head of state and head of government. France The President of France is an important position as the head of state and the commander in chief of the armed forces of the republic of France. Compared to most democracies in contemporary Europe, the position of the head of state in France is normally considered much important given the semi-unitary presidential republic. After the referendum of 1962 on the direct election of the president of France, the president has been elected directly through universal suffrage. In the previous cases, the president was normally elected through Electoral College. After the referendum of 2000 on the reduction of the mandate of the president of France, the length of the term was reduced from 7 to 5 years. After a change of constitution in 2008, the president cannot serve for more than two terms. Before the amendment of the constitution, there was no limit to the number of terms that a person could hold office as the president and hence the head of state. France has a semi-presidential system of government and the position of the president is very powerful. Unlike in many other European countries where parliament conducts much of the activities of the government, the president wields much influence and authority in France (Godfrey, 2001). Much of this authority is realized in the areas of foreign policy and national security. As the head of state, one of the roles of the French president is to choose the prime minister of the republic. The selection of the president has to be supported with the majority of the national assembly. The president is also mandated to promulgate laws and dissolve the national assembly. The attribution so the president of France is well outlined in the constitution of France. The president ensures that the constitution is observed and guarantees national independence, observance of treaties and territorial integrity. The powers of the president can be diminished in instances where the majority of the national assemblies hold opposite political views to those of the president. This is normally referred to as political cohabitation. In such a case, much of the de facto power will lie with the prime minister and the national assembly. However, when the president holds similar political views with a majority of the national assembly, he/she takes a very active duty as the head of state and directly influences government policy. The president has limited form of sespensive veto considering that when presented with a law he or she can request the law to be read again by the national assembly (Dolan, 2005). However, this power is only limited to one reading per law. In the same way, the president might choose to refer the review of the law to the Constitutional Council. As in most situations, one of the most important roles of the head of state in the French government is being the national symbol of the state. Even in instances of cohabitation, the president is allowed to make policy in relation to sensitive issues like security and foreign affairs while the Prime minister runs the domestic affairs. In
Name: University Course: Instructor: Date: The Importance of Head of State The importance of the position of head of state varies considerably in most contemporary European democracies. The term is normally used to refer to the person who holds the highest position in sovereign states…
The presidential, parliamentary and hybrid systems are existing political systems implemented by various countries in the world. The stability of the constitution helps in stabilizing the political systems. Supranationalization, dispersal of power and decentralization are key aspects of multi-level governance.
Political parties provide accessible forums for organized interest groups having diverse objectives to operate freely and they surely provide the most plausible means of restricting excesses and abuses by dominant interest groups. Moreover, citizens have a simpler choice to make when they exercise their right to vote by choosing the political party they feel most closely profess what they personally feel should be done for their benefit and for the betterment of the country.
The civil rights and their liberties were protected and were safeguarded in the Constitution of the United States in 1788 while it was presented for the elected government. Democracy has become a complete guideline and the way of living; having its root deep down in social, economic and political equality on the American frontline.
Most of the perspectives apply also to the East European process of transition, although we have to bear in mind the different nature of the preceding regimes (David, & Bruszt, 1998).
Let us begin with the transfer of power from the bogus popular legitimacy of the Communist Party state to the electorate, a crucial step in the transformation of all the East European satellites and the Soviet Union itself.
The starting point is the definition of a State. From many definitions (Ranney 2001; Masters 1989; Dahl 1984) can be proposed the following simple one: a State is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty.
Liberalism as a world view and a branch of political philosophy also belongs to this heritage and has its deep historical roots. Liberal ideas are of particular importance, as since its emergence as a coherent ideology and until our time liberalism, in one form or another, is actively involved into the mentioned discussions about the present and future of democracy and freedom in this and other countries.
The policy focus on the problems that EU is undergoing, such as, drop in inflation rate, overvalued Euro and internal disagreement among member countries, that are acting as a barrier to the Euro zone’s growth. The high level of
Additionally, I will lead the industry for financial strength by increasing the business using the business intelligence and the analysis of the competitor. Consequently, as a head teacher I will build the business excellence and innovation by
Some of the common roles obliged to presidents include: principal head of state, commander in chief of all the armed forces, principal legislator, diplomat, citizen, administrator, and party chief. All the president's roles are important; however, the president's responsibility as the chief head of state is the most important.
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