The development of the elements of social discrimination is detailed and described through a series of chronological events. The author describes the occurrences as having been supported by the way the societies behaved. The settlement of people was based on some racial elements of their origin. This meant that there were suburbs for whites, Spaniards, African Americans and many other such settlements. The racial discrimination was worsened by practice in institutions where enrolment also followed such discriminative approaches. Despite laws having been established in seeking to change the conditions of the people, an element of hopelessness was present among the people as they failed to see any changes.
The author describes various elements that have been seen as having brought about changes in relation to the elimination of the racial practices. The application of legal approaches in abolishing slavery and discrimination marked the beginning of the transformation, which was to take place and empower the marginalised groups of people. The book provides historical information on how people were emancipated from the bondage of these practices in gaining freedom. Such emancipations indicated the progress which had been made in seeking to eliminate these vices from the society (Ruffin 26). The social life of black people changed gradually to reach the level where they could enjoy equal rights as other American citizens.
These chapters present details of black people who, despite being a minority group, managed to develop, and from communities which had a national and regional impact in the society (Ruffin 34). The points indicate the importance of social institutions in the development of strong community. These social institutions provide the marginalised African American people to challenge the existing socioeconomic