Robert Merton gives five types of deviance. The first type of deviance relate to innovation aimed at responding to the emphasis of wealth and lack of opportunities to get rich (Richard & Deflem, 2003). The innovation ways include unacceptable social means like stealing and selling of drugs in order to acquire wealth and achieve the society goals. The second type of deviance relate to conforming to the society goals and the acceptable means of achieving society goals through hard work.
The third type of deviance relates to ritualism where people are unable to achieve socially accepted goals but accept and adhere to the socially accepted means to achieve the goals (Richard & Deflem, 2003). Fourthly, individuals might decide to become retreats whereby they reject the society’s accepted goals and means to achieve the goals (Richard, 2014). Retreats commit acts of deviance to achieve things that are not socially acceptable (Richard & Deflem, 2003). Finally, individuals may reject the cultural goals, the accepted means, create, and advocate for new goals and means to replace those of the society. This refers to deviance.
Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Affairs. (2010). Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Literature Reviews. Retrieved from: