The condition is affecting the social lives of many women and young girls because the society tends to neglect them. In most cases, those affected come from poor backgrounds and cannot be able to afford medical services. Therefore, the condition poses an economic challenge to developing countries in terms of health and gender equality. Research question Fistula is a condition that is ruining the lives of many young girls and women especially in Africa. Gender inequalities and stereotypes aggregate the situation in most of the African cases. Some of the causes of fistula can be prevented through proper planning and involving relevant stakeholders. The severity of the effects of fistula, especially withdrawal and other social factors made me choose ways of minimizing cases of obstetric fistula in young girls and women as my research question (Koblinski and Holly 58). However, it calls the need of understanding causes of fistula so that one can develop strategies or ways of minimizing the condition. Literature review A number of academic sources explain the magnitude of fistula in most developing countries. The following is a list of the annotated bibliographies of some journal articles discussing the topic. Muleta, M. “Obstetric fistulae: a retrospective study of 1210 cases at the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital.” Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 17.1 (1997): 68-70. Feinberg Library. 11 November 2012. The article shows the statistics of cases in the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital. It shows that a majority of the cases of fistula in the hospital affect young girls below twenty years. Muleta argues that early pregnancies among the young girls lead to obstructed labor, which is the principal cause of fistula. Lack of facilities and poor transport services contribute to the increasing number of cases among many women. The article shows how the society rejects victims of fistula. Muleta shows that 43.8% of patients in the hospital received official divorce from their husbands due to their condition. It is also quick to point the role of the government and society in helping the victims of obstetric fistula. The article shows the severity of fistula among women and the growing number of reported cases, which helps in supporting the research question. Bangser, Maggie. “Obstetric fistula and stigma.” Lancet 367.9509 (2006): 535-536. Feinberg Library. 11 November 2012. Bangser uses an Eastern Africa project on restoring the dignity of women to highlight the two main factors affecting cases of fistula in developing countries. The article highlights poverty as the main cause of stigma among African women. It calls for the need of political intervention in dealing with cases of fistula and stigma in women. The article shows that many women have no access to medical help due to shame and poverty in many African countries. Fistula in women can be eliminated medically but is costly. Bangser shows that to eliminate the problem of fistula, different stakeholders including the government need to eliminate poverty and other social problems that affect women in society. Report from Tanzania. “Views & News.” Pakistan Journal on Women’s Studies 14.2 (2007): 142-144. Feinberg Library. 11 November 2012. The article is about a project in Tanzania that aims at restoring the dignity among women in the African country. The article presents cases of three Tanzanian women with fistula and the life that the
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