However, on the other hand, Giddens (2006) argues that schools reproduce and perpetuate social inequalities that already exist in social class and race. Such reproduction and perpetuation may not be included in formal curricula but are typically traits of behaviour and mannerisms and may be understood to be unstated agendas in schooling processes. Other studies by Gilbert (2008) have also shown that such unstated agendas play a role in socialising students into performing specific skills including emotional and intellectual dependency on authority figures, exercising restraint and learning to wait as well as usual negative connotations. As Gilbert (2008) explains, such negative connotations include tendencies to become rebellious. From Ball’s (1986) and Giddens’ (2006) perspectives, this literature review will address the question “how does the hidden curriculum during schooling (mainly secondary schools) affect the educational achievement of working class young people from black Caribbean and African ethnic groups in the UK?” Specifically, the literature review seeks to understand the relationship between hidden curriculum and the low achievement of African-Caribbean students within the British school system with focus on the educational achievement of working class people from black Caribbean and African ethnic groups.
Coffey (2001) explains that hidden curriculum is the manner in which cultural attitudes and values are transmitted via the way schools are organised and teaching structured. Agreeing to this explanation, Gordon, Bridglall and Meroe (2005) contribute that through its operation, schools have inadvertently been teaching the realities of nationality for black people and many are made aware of the inferior nature of the rights their communities are accorded. According to Provenzo (2006), hidden curriculum found its way into the schooling system basing on the teaching structure towards the end of the 19th