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First, recapitulation is considered as one of the means by which scientists in the 19th century used to rank human beings as higher or lower in class. This means that there was a social hierarchy determined by the ranks of human beings in the evolution era. In this case, there were two ranks of human beings: inferior and superior groups. The recapitulation holds that the adults of an inferior group are like children of superior groups. This is because a child of the century represents a primitive adult ancestor (Gould 117). Recapitulation also identifies and rationalizes forms of racism in two categories: blacks and whites. It is argued in this perspective that the southern Europeans are rated in a childlike primitive stage even as adults. This is contrary to the northerners who move to higher ranks. In the same way, the blacks are characterized as being similar to Europeans, who are in their immature stages. In terms of gender, there is a male stage and a female stage. Social Darwinism indicates that male adults in the 19th century are impressive, warm and submissive to emotion, timid, and irregular in action towards the outside world. The young males exhibit the female stage which characterizes primitive evolutionary stage (Gould 118). Levels of suicides were seen to be prevalent in the female stage. Women were seen as old and primitive while men were viewed as modern and less conservative. These ideologies in the Darwinian Social evolution represent the stereotypes of the 19th century. In this case, the young male and women are seen to be the deviant in the society as compared to male people. An important aspect of deviance in the 19th century is innate criminality, which is explained as the most common aspect of deviance of the century. In the study of a skull, Lombroso identified an aspect of criminality in the 19th century. This is what was referred to in the theory as atavism. The criminal nature of the criminals in the 19th century represented human primitivism and animal inferiority. Lombroso explained the features of the skull he studied in a way that gave a picture of a criminal (a deviant in our case). These features include enormous jaws, high cheek bones, large orbit sizes, handle-shaped ears, savages, insensibility to pain, tattooing, craving of evil, and excessive idleness. These are all the features of criminality which indicate the level of deviance in the 19th century and early 20th century. 2. Functionalist view of Deviance Functionalist view of deviance is based on the social facts, not psychological or biological ideologies. In this perspective, functionalism is viewed as a macro theory of the society. Since the society is a social system characterized by an organization of social institutions, it is the responsibility of the society to create and follow its own norms. The society will therefore accept those norms that will enable the society to function normally and properly. As long as the society functions normally, the social system will remain stable and healthy. In this case, some level of deviance is acceptable for as long as the institutions will still be able to maintain equilibrium in the society system. Durkheim argues that every society is inherently ailed by the problem of criminality (59). In this case, criminality can be viewed as one form of deviance. Durkheim provides a unique argument on this controversial aspect of deviance. Viewing criminality as a form of ...Show more
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Author Instructor Course Date 1. 19th and early 20th century pathological view of deviance The 19th and the early 20th century view of deviance are basically determined by the application of Darwinism in the society; this involves social revolution. The 19th century pathologists engaged more in the racing of the pathways followed by evolution…
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