In the nineteenth century, several mafia croups emerged developed into private armies known as mafie, and they were involved in various activities including extortion of money from people who owned land and ultimately became the violent criminal outfit that is currently referred to as Sicilian Mafia. On the other hand, the American Mafia ascended to power in the twenties and is independent from the Mafia in Italy; however, they have similar traditions including ormeta, which is a code of conduct and loyalty (Sifakis, 2005, p. 453).
The statement that people decide to act badly is the key principle of the classic theory that was made popular in the eighteenth century that emphasized on agency while claiming that people act on their own free will. This implies that people commit crimes when they think that the potential benefits of the criminal act outweigh the possibility of being punished. Nonetheless, the advancements of new studies in criminology, numerous criminologists started considering and arguing for the importance and the part played by structure and the effect it has on deviant conduct. The causes and materialization of criminal activities of gangs can be assessed using various structural concepts that underscore the importance of the role of economic and social structures as the causative agents of criminal behavior while tending to treat criminal conduct as the consequence of dysfunctional and objectionable structures.
John Hagedorn proposes that gangs should be examined in the setting of their communities and seen as a subject of urban policies instead of problems for the police. He develops the idea that the gangs of the present day originate from the black urban underclass-families that have been left behind in the ghettos by the black flight of those considered as upwardly mobile. This thesis is proposed as a new concept of gangs in the eighties but academics have doubts that more