On the other hand, dependent variables are outcome variables reflecting the effects of the dependent variable. These factors appear, disappear, diminish or increase in research. In an example, to determine the salt intake on hypertension, the blood pressure is the dependent variable and salt intake is the independent variable. Other variables in research are extraneous variables, which represent the undesired elements affecting research and the confounding variables, which are variables that negate the validity of a research (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 34).
Generally, research is divided into two main types, qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative research is a statistical analysis that attaches values in the study variables in a study and utilizes statistical methods. Conversely, qualitative research is a non-statistical kind of study in which seeks to provide the comprehension of the factors behind a problem. Either this study will provide deal and insight for the preceding studies (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 34). Survey is a type of quantitative research often used to assess thoughts, opinions, and feelings. Usually, a researcher has a predetermined set of questions for the survey sample. Using the representative sample the researcher then draws the population of interest from which he describes the attitude of the required variable from the population sample.
In sociological research, determination of the study topic is the first of the six steps. In this, the researcher identifies their aim for the study or the questions they want to research. Secondly, they look on the existing literature of what other sociologists have done on the topic they want to research (Lietz, Langer, and Furman 35). Through this, they identify the existing gaps in the study and avoid duplication of already studied problems. Either, the review of literature makes the researcher to avoid