Sociologist Weber first coined the term life chances and he defines, “Life chances are opportunities for individual development provided by social structure, ‘moulds’, as we have called them. As such, they provide an important bridge between an understanding of society which emphasizes the structural quality of things social…..and a normative theory of society which emphasizes individual liberty” (Sherraden & Sherraden, 41). Education is a life chance which varies from individuals to individuals. Now numerous previous researches have concentrated on the education and gender. Biases in gender have affected educational attainment. In this paper, my school of research is Oakland High School. A trend in this school is found that the female enrollment rates are higher than male enrollment and the African American are also improving their educational rates. My research question in this paper is, “How does some aspect of race (with the option of modifying race by gender) facilitate or impede academic achievement in high school (Oakland High School)?” Now having stated the research question, now I will concentrate on a brief literature that will highlight on this issue. Literature review The department for education and skills (DfES) in 2007 investigates the interaction between gender and ethnicity revealed that the difference in the male and female is relatively stable across the SES (Supplementary educational service) groupings which dictate that in a particular social group the educational performance of the girls outperform the performance of boys. The studies also revealed that gender gap occurs with varying ethnicity and Black Caribbean and other black people as compared to the other ethnic groups. Gender gaps also vary between various subjects like English, literature and humanities. This gap disappears in subjects like math and science. Studies of Burgess et al in the year 2004 focused on whether characteristics in school can explain the gender attainment gap. Using the National Pupil Database (NPD) they studies gender differential across various types of schools with respect to performance, gender adulteration, policies and percentages related to the students. Findings of the study reveal that the characteristics of school do not gets affected by gender gap. Studies of Skelton et al in the year 2007 reviewed psychological literature which aimed at explaining gender gap. Their studies revealed that the behavior of the human beings are determined in a biologically manner. The boys and the girls possess discrete structures of brain which influenced their skills and abilities. They also stated that the behavior of the human beings is constructed socially and they state that the differences in gender attribute to the socialization process starting from birth till the death. External factors and elements of the outer world like images and messages guide the boys and girls to behave accordingly. The children actively construct their gender identities and incorporate different behaviors within them for the purpose of expressing. Studies of Skeltal et al also revealed that a very important variable is the peer group effect. The friendship within the group of students tends to be composed of similar gender. The traits which are associated with a sizeable number of boys in secondary schools are that of
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