This explains the role of qualitative research in which the data to be collected will be qualitative in nature and not quantitative (Bakeman & Gottman, 1997). Common methods of collecting qualitative data include naturalistic observation. This is an observation which is undertaken under environment free from the control, regulation or manipulation of the researcher. It is always carried out in natural setting so that the data obtained reflect the true picture of the behavioral trend of the variables under focus. This mode of data collection tend to be more realistic as the researcher cannot manipulate the setting in which the investigation is to be carried out. The person undertaking the experiment will conform to the norms of the surrounding so that there is no attention created that would make people to be cautious in their behaviors. In doing so the research will record everything observed in its natural occurrence and record it down without influencing the findings. The data collected in such a natural setting tend to be based majorly on observation of a given behavior which cannot be assigned numbers. It is in respect of such characteristics that the data collected under this condition is basically qualitative. It should also be understood that quantitative data need to be measured on numerical scale and this is not easy to capture through mere observation. On the other hand attributes or qualities attached to a given conduct may actually be obtained by sight experience through observation and this explains the meaning of qualitative data. Take the example of age of people, it requires some numerical measurement which can be obtained by asking the respondents questions. On the other hand, some cultural beliefs like mode of communication, style of walking, way of greeting cannot be given numerical results but instead be scaled using some standards of quality. In natural setting asking questions may have some unnecessary influence on the feedback from the respondent like in the case of interviewer effect. This means that the only way to obtain non-biased data is through natural observation. When carrying out data collection in any research experiment observation can be done in two ways that is participant or nonparticipant. The researcher can participate in a given activity being carried out by the population of study so that in the course of taking part in whatever they are doing, he/she observes a given behavior. For instance, one may stay with a group of people say young male football fans and be part of the cheering team and in the course of the match observe the code of conduct that is exhibited by this fans population sample. Participant observation is fairly accurate since there will be no suspicion on the population sample about your intention. However, it may also be fairly demanding in terms of presentation in the sense that one do not look unique in action to the extent that the people whose behavior is to be observed slightly tune themselves to avoid negative perception by the researcher. In the case of nonparticipatory observation, the researcher takes a given position from a distance or within the population and observes how things are done without involvement in the activity. The main advantage of this method of data collection is that it saves time since one only need to observe the desired variables and leave in contrast to participant in which one must commit the entire activity time period. The
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