According to (Magill, 1993, p. 786) functionalism is the main theory that tries to explain the association that enables the society function in the manner it does by examining these relationships and establishing their purpose. It looks at society as a structure of interrelated organs. All organs must be in a consensus and must have a common interest to achieve. (Grusky, 2008) observes that functionalism is said to be supportive to social stratification system. Stratification system refers to the difficulty of social institutions that generate observed inequalities”, in short social stratification is the grouping of people based on the functions which must be met by the society. Functionalism dictates that so that society fulfills its intended aims, then social stratification would have to be the criterion that determines the efficiency by which goals are met by way of duty allocation as well as routine. This in turn brings about disproportion within the society. This theory paves the way to explaining the existence and causes of inequality in the society as not every member would hold the same socio economic or political status, this creates a state of disequilibrium as earlier stated by Grusky (2008), allowing the privileged to acquire better roles while the less privileged end up having lesser roles. The rules of allocation of roles across various groups through this system would ensure unequal control of valued positions, divisions of labor and even resourcesю
According to (Magill, 1993,p. 787) functionalism ensures that the roles of the society are always met through the mechanism of stratification and ensures inequality in all areas of the society from education , politics, economic and social status as roles to be filled are taken up by those better positioned or suited to take them.
(Magill, 1993) observes further that functionalism theory is concerned with trying to explain the relationships in large scale social structures. He also notes that functionalists try to explain why certain conditions exist in the society by trying to ascertain their purpose or function and how this functions work to meet to meet the perceived goals of the society in relation to the conflict theory which says that the struggle or strain in the society is indirect cause to functionalism.
Herbert Spenser (1820-1903) concludes that, through social stratification, functionalism holds that the society is made up of structures or groups. These structures, through general consensus, work towards a shared goal who popularizes the theory from Augustus Comte (1798-1857) by drawing parallels to Charles Darwin’s(1809-1882) work on biology, which says that, for a species to survive the environmental changes of its habitat, it has to adapt to its environment. Spencer drew his analogy in comparison to the human body, which has different parts with different functions and are connected to make a whole. With this comparison, Spencer likened the family which is the basic foundation of the society with a body and concluded that the society had to adapt to changes in order for it to meet its goals so