There’s little doubt that education, as a social institution, has an important role to play in our society. Whether you view that role positively or negatively, we need to examine a range of perspectives (Structuralist, Interactionist, Postmodern and New Right) that explore the role and purpose of the formal education system in contemporary society (Chris. Livesey and Lawson 1)
The term, theory, is interpreted differently by many people. Some people may define it as anabstractoutlinethat is designed with the idea of explaining observable consistencies between variables. Theories providerationalclarificationas to the reason why things take place in a certain way.
Sociology of Education
From a broader perspective sociology is about the influence that society has on education and that which education has on society. There exists a mutual relationship which exhibits complexity. Upon analyzing this complexity, Sarajevo observes that:
The first aspect of this complexity brings usto a conclusion that the sociology of education has two subjects of studying:society and education. According to its generality, the notion society isbroader than the notion education. On the other hand, education as a socialphenomenon, determines largely the development and movements in asociety. Without education a society could not survive; its essentialconstituents were developed by learning in social conditions, i.e. education.As the science of society, sociology studies, social phenomena and relationships use descriptive and scientific methods to observe, generalize,and to notice regular development and structures. (7)
There are various reasons as to why Sociology is interested in exploring education being a social spectacle: (Sarajevo 4) notes that the development of a particular society is far and wide determined by education. He further notes that: If we start with a hypothesis, that education can be broadly defined as conscious and useful learning and teaching in social conditions, we canconclude that the first foundations of civilization and its further developmentare permanently tied to education. Communities and countries which weremore efficient in transferring new technological inventions and in training forlife in a community, were more developed civilization and historically more superior in relation to others (Sarajevo 7). Human beings do influence each other by way of establishing general relationships which are social in nature as well as those with an economic and political as well as religious and cultural dimension. As this influence advanced in organization, it became useful overtime until today it has developed to a critically important educational element. Today,education has become an integral part of the social structure. Sarajevo argues that “Sociology studies social structure and social phenomena andeducation is a part of that structure and social phenomenon” (7) Education represents the origin, the function and the development of social structure as well as that of social phenomena.There are a number of partial tactics that have been used when comparing this subject. These approaches are not wrong by principal. They all contribute to the subject of sociology of education but each is biased in its own way. Sociology presents different opinion about education. In this paper we will look at functionalism as one of