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The same feelings unconsciously dissociate the individuals from the groups and communities that serve to be out-groups for them. The peoples’ attachment with their in-groups also creates prejudice and bias in the minds of the people, which unconsciously entice them to start abhorring the people belonging to the out-groups subsequently. Cultural relativism, on the other hand, is the state of affairs where the individuals start analyzing all the activities and developments being made all around them in the light of the culture either they belong to or they adhere to or in which they have obtained their socialization process. It is perhaps due to the very reality that humans always attempt to adjust themselves according to the physical and social environment existing all around them. As a result, the social traits and characteristics, different ones from those adopted by them look strange and unacceptable. For instance, the women belonging to the Middle East and South Asia do not like to shake hand and embrace with the stranger males as physical contacts of all kinds have been strict taboo according to their cultural values. Absolute deprivation or poverty threshold simply refers to the poverty line from where complete deprivation begins, and the individuals start leading a life with almost no financial benefits enough to meet their basic needs altogether. Thus, absence or lack of the financial resources necessary to meet basic needs leads the humans towards the state of absolute deprivation.
On the other hand, relative deprivation is the state where the people assess and estimate their status, position and resources by making a comparative analysis with the position, income and wealth of others, particularly those who are in better position than them in one or more of these issues. Relative deprivation could be made while comparing one’s lifestyle with the in-groups and out-groups on the one side, and with the people belonging to divergent ethno-racial and religious communities and nations on the other. Actually people develop the habit of ...Show more
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Summary

The essay "Sociological Notions" analyzes some sociological notions and terms like prejudice and discrimination, ethnocentrism and cultural relativism, absolute and relative deprivation, affirmative action, the glass ceiling and glass wall and brain-drain…
Sociological Notions
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