The nature of free market allows capitalists to utilize the environment for their personal gains with little attention to laborers. Capitalists do not bother with the condition of their environment and increasingly harm it as they release toxic substances. The harm to the environment leads to degradation, hence posing challenges to the living organisms as well as their existence. Karl Marx and neo-Marx theorists developed explanations of the capitalist business impact on the environment. Capitalists are interested in a large production of goods aimed at maximizing the profits with little attention to the natural environment. The theories hold different views on the level of capitalists’ participation in degrading the environment as well as the impacts they have. This research paper will outline the consequences of the contemporary hog farming in relation to theories by Marx and neo-Marx theorists. Theories Explaining the Consequences Theories of Metabolic Rift Karl Marx developed this theory to explain the rift created by capitalists between social and natural systems. Karl Marx claimed that the rift led to the exploitation of the environment causing an irreversible crisis. He also argued that human beings were a part of nature and societies; the latter worked as a whole with metabolism similar to that of human beings. Karl Marx added that any disruption in the natural cycle and processes results in a metabolic rift between nature and social systems. The consequence of this rift is buildup of wastes leading to degradation of the natural environment. The rural to urban migration has made people lose their contact with nature, hence, they have lost an insight on how their actions in the urban centers affect the environment (Liu, 2010). Similarly, the capitalists often move and look for cheaper labor in the rural areas, when workers demand to increase their wages. Over the years the rural–urban migration has been on the upward trend, more people live in the urban centers what makes them lose their connection with nature. The capitalists have to move to new locations and outsource cheap labor from developing nations. They increase and fuel the vicious downward cycle of underdevelopment, because they take competent and educated individuals to offer cheap labor. Taking highly educated students to offer cheap labor contributes to the underdevelopment in the affected countries. Treadmill of Production This theory was developed by Allan Schnaiberg. He explains the increase of environmental challenges in the modern era. This theorist argues that advancements in technology introduced by capitalists, who own the means of production and want to increase their production, drive the growth and consumption. Their actions lead to more consumption, which calls for more production, because all the components of the society depend on the economic growth to curb social problems related to crime and unemployment. Proponents of treadmill of production theory argue that environmental problems cannot be solved by such activities or systems since the growth continues and puts pressure on the production to act on the natural resources; that, as a result, generates environmental pollution (Foster, 1999). Treadmill of production theory advocates for a radical restructuring of the political economy controlled
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