2001) It is amazing, that despite the enormous influence of sports on society, the theoretical development in this flied is underdeveloped. Before taking a deeper glance at social stratification and organizational context of sports, it is worth noting, that in this world there is nothing black and white and even though sports in general has a positive impact on society; drawbacks should and must be emphasized in order to eliminate the possibility of future mistakes.
Despite the fact, that sports is widely considered to be a sphere free from prejudice and discrimination, this issue can hardly be taken for granted: "As the 20th century began, American girls and women who wished to participate in sport found themselves in a race that would prove to be more grueling than the actual marathons that females are running and setting records in today." (Motley, M., Lavine, M. 2001) Women were kept from participating in sports and in case if they were allowed, novelty and sex appeal were highlighted rather then athletic skills. This is evident from the names that were given to women's teams in the late 80th: "Balian Ice Cream Beauties", "Slapsie Maxie's Curvacious Cuties" (Motley, M., Lavine, M. 2001). ...
), in accordance with Kay Morgan (1999) the NAGWS "began in 1899 and continues today as one of six associations within the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance," did and do contribute to the improvement of the situation, however, even in the new millennium female population still only will be celebrating the true equality of opportunities in sports. In accordance with Feminist Majority Foundation and New Media Publishing, female population enjoys only 41% of athletic opportunities, 36% of athletic budget, and 32% of the recruitment budget (2005).
Why is it so, that sports contributes to inequality between men and women If in this case the issue can be partially attributed to the very essence of sports and, maybe, the inborn, rather then acquired, difference in psychological traits and role models of the two genders, then why does the situation remain unchanged when it comes speaking about racial minorities In the 19th and 20-th centuries sports often took a shaped by social conflict: "early boxing epitomized a lower-class cultural style of raucous play that affirmed working-class virtues of prowess, bravery, honor, and physical culture--all of which brought condemnation from middle-class critics." (Pope, S. 2002) Communities, socialists, labor groups that were formed during at those times transformed sports into politically-charged picnics. Eventually, evolution of sports during the 20th century unified the group majorities and contributed to further segmentation of subordinate ones. White patriarchate determined the Where, When and How cultural minorities and women will participate in sports. Alice Coachman's victory in the high jump during the Olympiad of 1948 was the first time a black woman to win a gold medal and is considered