Globalisation is the increasing interaction of people through the extension of the international flow of such processes as money, ideas, and culture. Globalization is considered to be initially an economic process of integration which has social and cultural aspects as well. It involves goods and services, and the financial resources of capital, technology, and data. Advances in the means of transport (such as the steam locomotive, steamship, jet engine, and container ships) and telecommunications infrastructure (including the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet, and mobile phones) have been significant factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.
The things that define globalization process are
Liberalisation (the freedom to establish industry either in own country or abroad)
Free Trade (mostly, between countries)
Globalization of Economic Activities (coordination of national and world economy)
Connectivity (local businesses connections with the world, without borders limitations)
Borderless Globe (breaking borders between countries)
A Multi-dimensional Process (opening of national market to the world economy, if in short)
Global State vs. Global Civil Society (the cooperation and openness of countries results in the transparency of the society, so it becomes universal, not localized)
I would divide the characteristics of globalization into categories, like social, political, economic, geographic, cultural and so on. It would give a more specified picture of what is happening in each aspect of social life and to find out the impact globalization makes on our lives. It is also interesting to go through the history of globalization, how it emerged and why. It clarifies a lot of its current characteristics.
Here, I’ve found some interesting papers to read on the topic: