The earliest photos on record were made by French physicist Joeseph Nicephore Niepce and were called heliographs and were first made in 1827.
In 1851 British sculptor and photographer Frederick Scott archer introduced wet plate collodion. His method differed from what was used before in a few ways. Firstly the Collodion was used in place f Albumin. Secondly the plates had to be exposed and developed while wet and you needed to have a dark room close at hand in order to prepare the plates. The American Civil war was the great event that was documented with thousands f photographs. The principle photographer was Mathew B. Brady. The drawbacks to using this process would be portability, danger f shooting in a war zone/ battlefield. Having to have the plates wet before exposure and after meant you only had a limited amount f time to get them developed. This would mean that you could only photograph things that were close to your set up location. (Bial 2006)
British merchant Richard Kennett who released his work as early as 1874 made advances. However in 1878 Charles Bennett perfected the process. He used a dry plate coated with an emulsion f gelatin and silver bromide.
Around 1883american inventor George Eastman produced a roll f film consisting f a long paper strip coated with a sensitive emulsion. In 1888 Eastman marketed a "do-it-yourself camera called the "Kodak" and in 1889produced the first transparent flexible film support, in the form f ribbons f cellulose nitrate. The invention f roll f film marked the end f the early photographic era.
The first commercial colour process was commenced in the early 20th century and was invented by the Lumiere brothers Auguste and Louis. World War II caused photos to be used for publicity and advertising for people to enlist. This occurred between 1939 and 1945.the 35mm size film became popular at this time and was used to produce motion pictures. (Curran 1990)
Powdered magnesium was used to create an artificial light source. By sprinkling is in a trough and fired with a percussion cap it created a brilliant flash and an acrid smoke cloud. In 1947 American Physicist Edwin H. Land created the Polaroid camera. Two developments that have increased our ability to photograph very faint objects are an increase ISO f up to 5000 and an electronic device called light amplifiers.
The first "Camera" resembles a small house to sit in rather than a portable light tight box. Known as a camera obscura, typically an artist would stand inside. A small hole in one f the walls would project the image outside onto the opposing wall. The image appears in colour and due to laws f refraction also appears upside down and smaller than life scale. First appearing in the middle ages, camera obscuras were made popular by artists who used them in aid f