Bio-technology and the future of Food Production - Essay Example

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Bio-technology and the future of Food Production

Apart from the five principal countries, there are some countries with increasing GM crop cultivation. Paraguay, for example, reported the cultivation of 1.8 Mio hectares of GM soybean. India had, based on the annual percentage growth, the highest year-to-year growth with an increase of the Bt-cotton area from 0.1 Mio ha in 2003 to 1.3 Mio ha in 2005 counting for almost 15% of its total cotton area planted (James 2004, 2005). Additionally, there are various countries, which commercially grow GM crops on a smaller scale such as South Africa, Uruguay, Australia, Romania, Mexico, Spain and the Philippines (Sanvido et al. 2006).Techniques of Genetic Modification In simple terms, the gene technologist uses a "cutting-copying-pasting" approach to transfer genes from one organism to another. For this, bacterial enzymes are used that recognize, cut and join DNA at specific locations acting as molecular "scissors-and-tape". However, the selected gene is copied billions-fold, with the result that the amount of original genetic material in the modified organism is immeasurably small. Since DNA does not always readily move from one organism to another, "vehicles" such as plasmids (small rings of bacterial DNA) may be used; alternatively, some plant cells may be transformed by "shooting" small particles coated with the new DNA into the target cell using a special type of gun, called the "Gene Gun". The modified cell can then be used to regenerate a new organism. Then the movement of the desired gene(s) into another organism. ...
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Summary

In the paper “Bio-technology and the future of Food Production” the author provides a brief history of the new GM technology, explains what is genetic modification and how it is carried out, explains the benefits and controversies of genetically modified organisms on environment and health.

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