These chips or this technology, in particular, is used by multiple manufacturers to develop specialized microprocessors. "The ARM chip has become one of the most used CPU designs in the world, found in everything from hard drives, to mobile phones, to routers, to calculators, to children's toys. Today it accounts for over 75% of all 32-bit embedded CPU's" ("ARM Processing", np). Prominent companies using this technology include: Texas Instruments, Nintendo, Philips, Sharp, and IBM.
These devices usually include a one time use, in-order RISC processors that have little cache. It maybe sold as a generic chip or with a customized pre-programmed layout. Their real-world applications require they be small, efficient, and pre-screened to be correct for the equipment in which they are installed. They can be custom-designed, but the most important features are performance, power allocation, and cost. The specifications includes a load store architecture, 16 registers (some for general purpose and others for a program counter), 32-bit architecture and 32-bit instructions, with all instructions assured to meet quality standards. This is known as predicated.
The ARM processor has evolved from its humble beginnings in the early 1980s. Two British scientists working at Acorn Computers Ltd began with a development project and a desire to improve upon current technology. They needed something that was small and cheap, but able to produce powerful results and relatively easy to program. The first prototypes, ARM1 and ARM2, entered the development cycle. ARM1, in 1985 and in 1986, ARM2, the first real production model. The first sets of instructions were written in BASIC. "The ARM didn't see its use as the primary host processor in the system until the release of Archimedes in 1987, which ran at an astounding 8 MHz and had a vast amount of RAM-512K. Archimedes was arguably the first widely available system that used [a] ... (RISC) processor" (Grehan, np). Archimedes was considered the first real ARM-based platform, and as most new technology, was not well received in the beginning. Software emulators developed software that allowed Archimedes to use some of the more popular PC-based programs at the time, since it originally came with little than a new processor and operating system. The design of the original ARM chips created a processor that supplied good performance in the low-end models of the newly designed personal computers. Next, the design was expanded and modified to move into the high-end computer and workstation models.
The ARM2 incorporated and showcased a 32-bit data bus, a 26-bit address space, and 16 32-bit registers. The bus transfers data and power between internal machine components, or between two different computers. The address space is the space within the computer's memory that identifies where the data resides. The registers are a special type of memory that increase processing speed, and are measured by the number of bits that contain. In 1991, from a separate business unit (ARM Holdings plc), the ARM6 laid the foundation for the personal digital assistant revolution when Apple used a modification of the technology in their Newton PDA.
Current ARM technology is an essential component for microprocessor cores, architectural extensions, and system-on-chip (SoC) solutions, "it has excelled because it is an open architecture that provides unparalleled levels of