Fluids and Drainage Engineering

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Hydrology has been defined as the study of the occurrence, circulation and distribution of water over the world's surface. It covers a vast area of endeavour and is not the exclusive preserve of civil engineers. Engineering hydrology is concerned with the quantitative relationship between rainfall and runoff and, in particular, with the magnitude and time variations of runoff.


The most common use of engineering hydrology is the prediction of design events. This may be considered analogous to the estimation of design loads on structures. Design events do not mimic nature, but are merely a convenient way of designing safe and economical structures for water resources schemes. Civil engineers are principally concerned with the extremes of nature, design events may be either floods or droughts. The design of hydraulic structures will normally require the estimation of a suitable design flood and sometimes a design drought (Bedient and Huber, 1992). A large range of factors control the shape of hydrographs. These include: precipitation type and intensity, catchment shape, catchment gradient, land use and vegetation, soil type, geology etc. A hydrograph is the time-series record of water level, water flow or other hydraulic properties, and can be used to gain insights into the relationships between rivers and aquifers. Typically, a stream hydrograph shows the fluctuations in stream flow through time and is a commonly available dataset routinely measured to support the management of water resources. ...
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