Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm

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The Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) is an algorithm for routing data across Wireless Mesh Networks or Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET). It was developed by Vincent Park at the University of Maryland, College Park and the Naval Research Laboratory.


The protocol's reaction is structured as a temporally-ordered sequence of diffusing computations; each computation consisting of a sequence of directed link reversals. The protocol is highly adaptive, efficient and scalable; being best-suited for use in large, dense, mobile networks. In these networks, the protocol's reaction to link failures typically involves only a localized "single pass" of the distributed algorithm. This capability is unique among protocols which are stable in the face of network partitions, and results in the protocol's high degree of adaptivity . This desirable behavior is achieved through the novel use of a "physical or logical clock" to establish the "temporal order" of topological change events which is used to structure (or order) the algorithm's reaction to topological changes. (Park and Corson, 1997, p.1)
The basic, underlying algorithm is neither distance-vector nor link-state; it is a member of a class referred to as link-reversal algorithms. The protocol builds a loop-free, multipath routing structure that is used as the basis for forwarding traffic to a given destination. The protocol can simultaneously support both source-initiated, on-demand routing for some destinations and destination-initiated, proactive routing for other destinations. (Lundberg, 2002)
Routing optimality (i.e. determination of the shortest path) is less important for the TORA algorithm. ...
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