The Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) is an algorithm for routing data across Wireless Mesh Networks or Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET). It was developed by Vincent Park at the University of Maryland, College Park and the Naval Research Laboratory…
The protocol's reaction is structured as a temporally-ordered sequence of diffusing computations; each computation consisting of a sequence of directed link reversals. The protocol is highly adaptive, efficient and scalable; being best-suited for use in large, dense, mobile networks. In these networks, the protocol's reaction to link failures typically involves only a localized "single pass" of the distributed algorithm. This capability is unique among protocols which are stable in the face of network partitions, and results in the protocol's high degree of adaptivity . This desirable behavior is achieved through the novel use of a "physical or logical clock" to establish the "temporal order" of topological change events which is used to structure (or order) the algorithm's reaction to topological changes. (Park and Corson, 1997, p.1)
The basic, underlying algorithm is neither distance-vector nor link-state; it is a member of a class referred to as link-reversal algorithms. The protocol builds a loop-free, multipath routing structure that is used as the basis for forwarding traffic to a given destination. The protocol can simultaneously support both source-initiated, on-demand routing for some destinations and destination-initiated, proactive routing for other destinations. (Lundberg, 2002)
Routing optimality (i.e. determination of the shortest path) is less important for the TORA algorithm. Also it is assumed that it's not necessary (nor desirable) to maintain routes between every source/destination pair at all times. The overhead expended to establish a route between a given source/destination pair will be wasted if the source does not require the route prior to its invalidation due to topological changes.
The TORA protocol is designed to minimize reaction to topological changes. A key concept in its design is that it decouples the generation of potentially far-reaching control message propagation from the rate of topological changes. Such messaging is typically localized to a very small set of nodes near the change without having to resort to a dynamic, hierarchical routing solution with its attendant complexity. (Park and Corson, 1997, p.2)
The basic idea is as follows. When a node loses its last downstream link (i.e. becomes a local minimum) as a result of a link failure, the node selects a new height such that it becomes a global maximum by defining a new "reference level". By design, when a new reference level is defined, it is higher than any previously defined reference level. (Park and Corson, 1997, p.4)
It is based on the ideas of the GB and LMR algorithms. It uses Query and Reply packets as in LMR but combines this with the notion of height as in the GB partial reversal algorithm. The main enhancement comes from the introduction of a time value which stores the time since a link failure.
TORA also maintains Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) by means of an ordered quintuple associated with each node with ...
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