Soil has important rank among the materials for the engineers because of its diversity of forms and their physical, chemical, mechanical properties and also because it is the part that moves the origin loads. Problems associated with soil properties calls for thorough study of soil, in order to avoid problems resulting from unknown soil characteristics. Major construction issues such as cracks in the concrete elements, and other flaws, all of which can be avoided through the prior study of soil characteristics on the construction site. It has been found that much more amount of investment is done to solve problems caused by soil after construction then actual construction cost. So by proper geotechnical investigation many problems caused during construction can be solved.
Many parts of Saudi Arabia has problematic soils and very complex soil conditions not suitable for construction. Some of the problems in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are, expansive soils, sabkha deposits, shrinking and loose Aeolian deposits, shifting of sand, collapsible soils etc. Other region specific problems such as igneous rock in western mountain region, sedimentary rock formation in central and northern region and coral limestone formation in coastal regions major issues for structures. In recent years many detailed investigations of soil was conducted all over Saudi Arabia but still all the geotechnical data is scattered and is not easily accessible. In country such as United Kingdom all the data from all the investigation is well maintained and constitute major feedback into engineering practice. This research will investigate standards followed for geotechnical investigation in UK and Saudi Arabia. Various geotechnical problems in Saudi Arabia will be reviewed and solution for such problems will be found by referring similar practise in UK. (Refeai, 1994)
1.3 Research Objectives
Investigate the difference between the code followed for geotechnical investigation in Saudi Arabia and UK
Consider and review appropriate case studies
Recommend changes in the codes if required to improve geotechnical investigation in Saudi Arabia by taking reference of UK.
2.1 Geotechnical Investigation
Evaluation of soil, ground water, rock geologic and seismologic conditions that significantly affect the design and construction of structures is done by a geotechnical investigation. While designing of structures geotechnical investigation is done to consider various aspects such as earthwork and excavation, ground water control, design of paving and flatwork, slopes and for other soil work related to the project. The geotechnical investigation examines the hazards that may potentially affect the project related to geologic and seismologic conditions in earthquake prone areas.
2.1.1 Objective of Investigation
The investigation may be required to be done for the followings:-
Investigation'for new works
Reports on existing works
Investigation'of material availability
The main objective is to determine the following to the required accuracy:
(a) The subsoil profile- As the boring progresses, soil obtained from different depths are inspected.
The following vital information is given by the subsoil profile:
(i) Important soil layers, their thickness and inclinations are identified.
(ii) Bed rocker bearing layer's location.