The issue of computer security first arose in the 1970s as individuals began to break into telephone systems. As technology advanced in computing, computer systems became targets as well. The need for computer network security system raised when a couple of incidents occurred in the USA. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) made one of its first arrests related to computer hacking in the early 1980s3. A group of hackers known as the 414s, named after their area code in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were indicted for attacking 60 different computer systems including the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Computer security breaches like these became increasingly commonplace throughout the 1980s, prompting the passage of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act3.
The advent of world wide web has complicated the computer network security as the computer network are linked worldwide and it would a daunting task to predict the assault made on your computer system. In the decade, a 25-year-old hacker named Kevin Mitnick began tapping into the e-mail system used by computer security managers at both Digital Equipment Corp. and MCI Communications Corp. As a result, Mitnick was arrested and sentenced to one year in jail. Although a multitude of other hackers were brought to justice, many continued to operate, including one who successfully pilfered $70 million from the First National Bank of Chicago. The Computer Emergency Response Team was established by the U.S. government to research the increasing number of computer security breaches.
Along with growth in hacking activity came the spread of computer viruses. Three of the most well known viruses-Cascade, Friday the 13th, and Stoned-all originated in 1987. When computer companies like IBM Corp. and Symantec Corp. began research on the ways to detect and remove viruses from computers, as well as ways to prevent infection in the first place, virus writers began developing more elusive viruses. By 1991, more than 1,000 viruses had been discovered by computer security experts3.
Computer security gaps were exposed at many major corporations and governmental bodies including AT&T Corp., Griffith Air Force Base, NASA, and the Korean Atomic Research Institute-during the early 1990s. A study conducted by the Computer Security Institute that year determined that one in every five Web sites had been hacked. Later in the 1990s, the Web sites of several federal agencies, including the U.S. Department of Justice, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, and the CIA, were defaced by hackers. In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics received a deluge of bogus requests for information. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Justice created the National Infrastructure Protection Center, charging it with task of safeguarding domestic technology, telecommunications, and transportation systems from hackers3.
According to a report released by the FBI's Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) hacking in 2000 increased 79 percent over 1999 figures. Even leading Web sites such as Yahoo!, America Online, eBay, and Amazon.com were exposed as vulnerable, costing the firms millions of dollars and undermining the already tenuous confidence online shoppers had in the security levels of these sites3.
Secure networking involves securing the application traffic as it channelizes the network4.
Perimeter security protects the network