DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, it is usually an acid that contains genes that help living organisms in development and functions, the DNA has four molecules which are referred to as bases, these bases have a sequence where information is stored, the information contained is retrieved using genetic codes and these codes are retrieved by copying the DNA into related nucleic acid in a process called transcription.
The molecule of DNA is one long chain but it is made up of only four different molecules referred to as bases and they include Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine and Guanine, these molecules make pairs and the DNA in a human cell has 23 pairs where one pair comes from the mother of the person in consideration and the other comes from the father, every persons DNA is unique except for identical twins.
Some uses of the DNA technology include agricultural engineering whereby we have genetically modified food, finger printing and the collection of historical information in history and also anthropology. In this case we will consider finger printing which is useful in crime detection and solving crime.
Scientist will use body products or body parts to detect the perpetrators of crimes, this include blood and other body fluids, hair, semen, bones, skin or even saliva from a crime scene to detect the perpetrators of crime. This process of crime detection is referred to as DNA profiling and it is termed as a reliable way to identify criminals from a crime scene.
A criminal is supposed to provide samples of his or her DNA in order to aid in comparing the DNA sample from the crime scene and that of the convict, because DNA profiling is usually reliable and accurate when the match is made then the convict is termed as guilty.
The process of investigation:
Collection of DNA samples from a crime scene is the first step in DNA step, this is followed by creating a DNA profile regarding this samples and the last step is the collection of samples from suspects for DNA profiling and comparing them with those from the crime scene.
Advantages of DNA:
It is reliable and accurate because the results produced are considered to be accurate, the DNA evidence is produced in a court of law and this helps in solving cases, however the DNA technology is sometimes not helpful in the case where the crime scene has many samples that involve a lot of DNA sample from a number of people and this might be misleading and difficult to solve. Perpetrators of crime may also be informed about this technology and may take the advantage of this by placing DNA samples on crime scenes which may lead to conviction of innocent citizens. however despite this disadvantages the technology is still helpful in solving crimes.
It helps solve old cases were previously unsolved and there was a DNA sample that was collected, in the past when the technology did not exist some cases were left unsolved or the wrong people convicted but the introduction of this technology helped solve such cases where such DNA sample were collected and