The designs were agreed upon at the European Council meeting in Amsterdam in June 1997.
The majority of countries only have 3 different back desings - one for each of the groups of coinage, that is one back for the 1,2 and 5 cent, one back for the 10, 20, and 50 cent, and one back for the 1 and 2 euro coins. But some differ from this as well as Finland has one back for all the cent coins and then a 2nd back for the 1 euro and a 3rd for the 2 euro coin. The standard is that there is no standard.
There are 5 countries, Italy, Austria, Finland, Greece, Monaco and San Marino which use multiple back designs. Finland has differing back designs for its 1 and 2 euro coins, the cent coins follow the norm. Italy, Austria, Greece, and San Marino decided to go all out apparently and they have a different back design for each and every coin. Italy, Austria, Greece, and San Marino thus have 8 differnet coin back designs. In the other extreme, Belgium, Ireland, and Vatican City only have 1 back design for all of its coins. The Netherlands has 2 back designs, while Monoco has 4 back designs.
Commemorative coins of various other denominations, not intended for circulation, have been issued. They are legal tender only in the nation which issued them. In addition, members have from time to time replaced the national side of the two euro coin with a commemorative design
Q3: How might the concept of simultaneous design be applied in the design of coinage
The currency sign
The official construction of the euro sign, which was specified to be printed in PMS Yellow on a PMS Reflex Blue background
A special euro currency sign () was designed after a public survey had narrowed the original ten proposals down to two. The European Commission then chose the final design. The eventual winner was a design created by the Belgian Alain Billiet. The official story of the design history of the euro sign is disputed by Arthur Eisenmenger, a former chief graphic designer for the EEC, who claims to have created it as a generic symbol of Europe.
The glyph is (according to the European Commission) "a combination of the Greek epsilon, as a sign of the weight of European civilization; an E for Europe; and the parallel lines crossing through standing for the stability of the euro".
The European Commission also specified a euro logo with exact proportions and foreground/background colour tones. Although some font designers simply copied the exact shape of this logo as the euro sign in their fonts, most designed their own variants, often based upon the capital letter C in the respective font so that currency signs have the same width as