The Machine-Readable Cataloging (MARC) standards are made up of the MARC formats, which are standards for communicating and representing bibliographic and other related information in machine-readable form. The Machine-Readable Cataloging also defines a bibliographic format for data which was developed at the Library of Congress in the 1960s by Henriette Avram. MARC provides the protocol through which there can be exchange and interpretation of bibliographic information by various computers. A lot of library catalogs in use today have their foundation in the data elements in MARC are the foundation of most.
The current record structure of MARC is an implementation of ISO 2709, also known as ANSI/NISO Z39.2. "MARC records are composed of three elements: the record structure, the content designation, and the data content of the record. The record structure implements national and international standards (e.g., Z39.2, ISO2709). The content designation is "the codes and conventions established to identify explicitly and characterize data elements within a record and support their manipulation. ...Show more