Infrastructure comprises buildings; engineering plants; and other major arrangements, such as tanks, towers, monuments, roadways, railways, tunnels, overpasses, dams, pipelines, and broadcast lines etc.
There are two underlying themes that permeate the modern building industry. The first is that construction per se is technologically rooted in man's historical appropriation of nature. The second is that the present-day notion of construction as an economic sector is an outgrowth of the development of market-based construction. Both of these themes are inexorably woven into the everyday pace and rhythm of construction (Ball, 1998, Pp 46-47).
In the first respect, builders and craftsperson's still confront the age-old problems posed in the aboriginal search for dwellings. Issues of ventilation, illumination, and structural support, which challenged their historical predecessors, are confronted daily by engineers, architects, and tradespersons. Cave dwellers would no more be apt to build a wintry fire in a low-domed cliff aperture than would a twentieth-century architect design a sealed office structure without air-conditioning (Bennett, 2000, Pp 56-57).
The physical history of construction is one of materials and machines. The choice of materials has always been a function of use, durability, and availability. Brick and stone structures dominated colonial New England while timber homes were the western standards. ...