Fraud and Fraudulent Instruments

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The advancements of computer technologies where on one hand has created ease for us, on the other hand, this technology has produced many criminal minds for which it is necessary to develop and implement law and legislations. According to Benson et al, "Congress has treated computer-related crimes as distinct federal offenses since 1984 after passage of the Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse Law (CFAA)" (Benson et al, 1997)


In 1996, the CFAA was amended by the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. This Act amends all computers joined to the Internet and all computer activities, whether they occur locally or nationally". (Ferrera et al, 2001, p. 308)
The Act was introduced and amended in Title 18 of the United States Code (Ferrera et al, 2001, p. 309) for prosecuting cyber crimes like drugs dealing, fraud, the transmission of pornography, international crime, money-laundering and the policing methodologies such as electronic eavesdropping. "Since it is hard to prohibit criminals from the market, as can be done in some areas of white-collar crime or, increasingly via the civil law, from stores or even private shopping malls, the damage caused even by individual acts of computer fraud or vandalism may be entirely disproportionate to offenders' assets and income, far more so than in shop theft or fraud". (Bamfield, 1997)
According to Wall, "The term 'cyber crime' does not actually do much more than signify the occurrence of a harmful behaviour that is somehow related to a computer. It has no specific referent in law, and it is a concept that has been largely invented by the media. (Wall, 2001, p. ...
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