Another nomenclature involves the use of reinforcement in classification where polymers may be classified into fibers (multifilament, monofilaments, short filaments and long filaments), skeletons or particles.
Polymer matrix composite comprises of carbon, glass or other high strength fibers bonded by a thermoset or thermoplastic resin. The materials resulting from this bond is stiff, very strong and is able to withstand corrosion. Among the inherent advantages especially to manufacturing and machining is that the PMC assume flat, sharply sculptured contours or curved surfaces with ease. The materials are also very cheap. PMC materials are used as an option to steel.
As mentioned earlier, polymer materials are comprised of the fiber and the matrix, the main fuction of the matrix material is to surport and surrounds the reinforcement fiber. It also aids in maintaining the fiber in position. The reinforcement materials impacts special mechanical and physical properties to the matrix material. Due to the availability of different fiber and matrix materials, the material engineer can select different materials for fiber and the matrix thus enhance the resulting polymer composite material.
Commercially available polymer matrix materials are also refereed to as resin solutions. ...
The strength of the composite polymer material depends upon the ratio of fiber and the matrix material. Generally as the fiber content increases the strength also increases. Some of physical properties of these materials are that there are orthotropic and not isotropic. This means that their strength depends on the direction of the application of the force. It has been found out that PMC stiffness depends upon the applied force and load. This is in contrast with metallic materials that are generally isotropic meaning that they have the same stiffness irrespective of the orientation of the applied force. Repeated shock, impacts and other cyclic stresses can cause the material to separate between two layers. This condition is called delamination. Composites have also be found to fail both at a macroscopic and microscopic scale, the material are subjected to composite buckling, which causes crushing of the material. The material can also fail in tension due to a pulling force. Other polymer composites have been found to be brittle and have limited strengths. The strength of the composite material depends upon individual material properties, the size and distribution of the fiber and the composite, the volume fraction of individual composite materials. The shape of the constituents' materials and the nature of the interface between the fiber and the matrix
Among the inherent properties of polymer composites includes high strength and stiffness, high temperature stability as compared to their individual components, low density, high corrosion resistance and low surface wear. Polymer materials can be divided into two main categories, these include the short fiber reinforced polymer materials and continuous fiber reinforced