Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems, whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic attacks. Passive noise control involves constructions done to reduce the noise level in roadways and busy roadways. The treatments include insulation, silencers, vibration mounts, damping treatments, absorptive treatments and conventional mufflers like the ones used on today's automobiles. The Bradford City Centre is one such place where the noise levels are very high. This report aims at making a comprehensive study about the present noise levels and the expected noise levels after the transformation that it is to undergo.
In recent years, traffic noise - the unpleasant, unwanted sounds generated on our nation's streets and roadways - has been of increasing concern both to the public and to State officials. At the same time, modern acoustical technology has been providing better ways to lessen the adverse impacts of roadway traffic noise. Many of these acoustical techniques are now being employed by government agencies, roadway planners and designers, construction engineers, and private developers to reduce the impact of this noise. The loudness of sounds (that is, how loud they seem to humans) varies from person to person, so there is no precise definition of loudness. However, based on many tests of large numbers of people, a sound level of 70 is twice as loud to the listener as a level of 60 (Wikipedia)
The level of roadway traffic noise depends on three things: (1) The volume of the traffic (2) the speed of the traffic, and (3) the number of vehicles in the flow of the traffic. Generally, the loudness of traffic noise is increased by heavier traffic volumes, higher speeds, and greater numbers of vehicles. Vehicle noise is a combination of the noises produced by the engine, exhaust, and tires. The loudness of traffic noise can also be increased by defective mufflers or other faulty equipment on vehicles. Any condition (such as a steep incline) that causes heavy laboring of motor vehicle engines will also increase traffic noise levels. There are other more complicated factors that affect the loudness of traffic noise. Roadway traffic noise is never constant (FHWA). The noise level is always changing with the number, type, and speed of the vehicles which produce the noise. However, it is usually inconvenient and cumbersome to represent traffic noise in this manner. A more practical method is to convert the noise data to a single representative number.
Roadway noise is being attacked with a three-part strategy: motor vehicle control, land use control, and roadway planning and design. The responsibilities for implementing these strategies are shared by all levels of government. Efforts are being made to either reduce or prevent traffic noise impacts by either obtaining quieter vehicles or by controlling future development near roadways (FHWA). The first part of the strategy goes right to the source of traffic noise: the vehicles. For example, vehicles can be designed with enclosures for the engine; fans that turn off