The commonly used building materials and their functions will be discussed afterwards. Internet, Computers and information technology is widely used is this field. Computers softwares are smart enough to carryout plans from blue print to final view of the structure that is to be created in coming days. Modern communications denies, elevators, stair cases, escalators invigilating camera, sound and security system is carefully designed. In multinational building, entrance requires verification of password registration card, picture or fingerprints.
Low energy houses are becoming popular fully equipped with energy efficiency evaluation tools. Such houses are 30 % more efficient than the building regulations then in force home energy rating charts are used an idea totally after two decades ago.
The recently constructed' Etrium 'Office building collogue, Germany is a marvelous landmark. It can accommodate a staff of 150. A compound thermal-insulation system is designed for the faade. Air Exhaust system is marvellous.
Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate), with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450 C in a kiln, in a process known as calcination, whereby a molecule of carbon dioxide is liberated from the calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide, or quicklime, which is then blended with the other materials . The resulting hard substance, called 'clinker', is then ground with a small amount of gypsum into a powder to make 'Ordinary Portland Cement', the most commonly used type of cement (often referred to as OPC).
Cement used in construction is characterized as hydraulic or non-hydraulic. Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) harden because of hydration chemical reactions that occur independently of the mixture's water content; they can harden even underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction that results when the anhydrous cement powder is mixed with water produces hydrates that are not water-soluble. Non-hydraulic cements (e.g., lime and gypsum plaster) must be kept dry in order to retain their strength.
The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete-the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a strong building material that is durable in the face of normal environmental effects. Concrete should not be confused with cement because the term cement refers to the material used to bind the aggregate materials of concrete. Concrete is a combination of a cement and aggregate. Hydraulic render (stucco) for finishing brick buildings in wet climates.Hydraulic mortars for masonry construction of harbor works, etc., in contact with sea water.
Iron and Steel
Iron and steel are used widely in the construction of roads, railways, other infrastructure, applicances, and buildings. Most large modern structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges, and airports, are supported by a steel skeleton. Even those with a concrete structure will employ steel for reinforcing. In addition to widespread use in major appliances and cars. Despite growth in usage of aluminium, it is still the main material for car bodies. Steel is used in a variety of other construction materials, such as bolts, nails, and screws. Other common applications include shipbuilding, pipeline transport, mining, offshore construction, aerospace, white goods (e.g.