The new equipment had more useful features, than the vacuum tube version. But the real push towards rapid advancement in the electronics industry came with the introduction of Integrated Circuits (ICs). This system relied on a process that could put hundred of electronic components on a single electronic chip measuring less than an eighth of an square (Shore, 1988). These integrated circuits formed the core of any electronic device, be it the computer, telephone equipment, measuring equipment, storage devices etc., which helped in making such equipment more reliable and faster. Having tasted the success of integrated circuits, the industry was in an overdrive to experiment with more circuits in small silicon chips, which gave rise to the LSI or Large Scale Integration technique. It was in the 1970s, that this technique arrived on the scene. This resulted in production of low cost and low power consuming devices, which helped in making the electronic gadgets more popular. And once the demand for such equipment picked up, there was no looking back, as the industry felt encouraged with the response from the market and the industry. Gordon E. Moore, the co-founder of Intel made a prophetic prediction in 1965. Moore asserted that the number of components that could be placed on a chip could be expected to double every year. Just 10 years down the line, i.e. in 1975, Moore revised his prediction, stating that "the new slope might approximate a doubling every two years, rather than every year." to 24 months1. The law started as just as an article in a journal has not only become a guiding principle in the semiconductor electronics industry but it has also helped in analyzing the technology trajectories in general. In fact Moore's law means better technologies and more Performance in the field of electronics and IT.
By the end of 1970s, LSI gave way to VLSI or Very Large Scale Integration, which resulted in further increase in the computing power, more storage and smaller size of the electronic gadgets. VLSI ensured that electronic circuits can store more than one million bits on a single chip of the size of a fingernail. Moore's law also ensured that costs too went down. This helped in integrating the powerful technique more seamlessly into our daily lives. Today, we are living in an era of convergence, when computing, telephony and broadcasting have become part of one system. With the help of our sleek mobile phone equipment, today we can do computing jobs, play games on it, can use it as a telephone or receive radio and TV broadcast signals on it. This signifies the era of mobility in computing and telephony.
The convergence era, works in tandem with advancements in the field of software as well, thus giving rise to the IT era. IT has been providing the all important push for the upgradation of the equipment and advancement in the way some of the services are rendered. Japan has been a leading nation in producing and implementing technologically advanced equipment. Japan was the first country in the world to introduce a packet switched wireless network, introduce wireless internet (i-mode), in 1999, and to launch camera phones, 3G in 2000 and 3.5G in 2003. It is